The birth of a child is one of the most significant events in life. And many couples prepare for it in advance. If future parents take care of family planning and pass a number of tests, the likelihood of a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby will increase several times.
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It is no secret that many children born were not planned by their parents. However, every year the number of couples who are seriously approaching the conception of a child increases. The better prepared the potential parents, the greater the chance that the expectant mother will more easily bear the pregnancy and give birth to a healthy baby. In order to determine how much future parents are ready for conception, it is necessary to pass a number of tests and pay a visit to several doctors.
What tests should be given to a woman before pregnancy
Family planning for a woman begins with a visit to the gynecologist's office. You will significantly help the doctor if, even before the appointment, remember all your illnesses and calculate the duration of the menstrual cycle. Remember to grab a medical card. The information provided will help the doctor make a complete picture of the examination.
So, the list of analyzes:
- Gynecologist - a consultation of a gynecologist is very important, this is a profile doctor who will lead the entire pregnancy.
- Dentist - timely examination of the oral cavity and treatment of diseased teeth will eliminate the risk of a dangerous infection.
- Otolaryngologist. Diseases of the ENT organs are also dangerous and even in a chronic form will be a constant source of infection.
- Cardiologist. An additional burden on the cardiovascular system of a woman during pregnancy and childbirth can be harmful if there are diseases or pathologies in this area.
- a vaginal smear on the flora,
- general, biochemical blood test,
- general urine analysis,
- scraping from the cervix for PCR examination,
- scraping cytology,
- thyroid hormones,
- Ultrasound of the mammary and thyroid gland, pelvic organs to exclude the presence of pathology,
- the presence of antibodies to toxoplasmosis, herpes virus, rubella, cytomegalovirus, human papillomavirus,
- antibodies to HIV, syphilis, gonococcus, mycoplasma, gardnerella,
- E. coli antibodies, staphylococcus,
- blood coagulation test,
- analysis for hepatitis B and C,
- HIV analysis
- syphilis analysis,
- PCR for latent infections,
- PCR examination of a scraping made from the cervix - for the presence of pathogens of herpes, cytomegalovirus, chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis,
- study of the level of thyroid hormones TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland that regulates the function of the thyroid gland), T3 (thyroxine), T4 (triiodothyronine).
1. First of all, you will be examined on a chair and a colposcopy will be performed. This is a diagnostic examination using a special device - a colposcope. Using this procedure and taking a cytological smear, the condition of the cervix is assessed. The main task before planning a child is to eliminate the sources of infections and the cause of inflammatory diseases. Therefore, you will be prescribed several directions for passing tests and for undergoing ultrasound diagnostics.
2. The standard list of tests before pregnancy includes a general analysis of urine and blood. The first analysis reflects the general condition of the body and allows you to identify diseases of the genitourinary tract. A blood test determines the level of hemoglobin and helps to track the inflammatory processes in the body.A blood test for sugar, a biochemical blood test, which allows you to evaluate the work of the most important organs and a coagulogram, are also required. The latest test determines blood coagulation.
3. PCR diagnosis of infections is one of the most necessary procedures. This is a blood test for many dangerous infections that pose a considerable danger to the development and life of the fetus.
One of the most important components of preparing for conception is checking the body for the presence of TORCH infections. The ToRCH abbreviation is formed from the most dangerous infectious diseases for a child: toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma), rubella (Rubella), cytomegalovirus (Cytomegalovirus) and genital herpes (Herpes). If a woman during pregnancy reveals at least one of the listed pathogens, then most likely she will have to have an abortion. And if pregnancy has not yet occurred, conception should be postponed until recovery.
The results of PCR diagnostics will clarify whether you are ill with other diseases:
If you are not sure that you had rubella during your childhood, be sure to take an analysis to determine if there is a risk of infection during pregnancy. The disease can lead to fetal malformations. If you have already had rubella, you can safely plan your baby. If you have never been ill with it, it is better to be vaccinated to avoid infection during gestation. Pregnancy is allowed three months after the introduction of the vaccine.
4. Ultrasound of the pelvic organs reveals diseases and pathological processes that prevent conception and the normal course of pregnancy. The study is scheduled for 5-7 and 21-23 days of the cycle. At the first stage, an assessment is made of the general condition of the pelvic organs.
At the second stage, the transformation of the endometrium and the presence of the corpus luteum (whether ovulation has occurred) are determined. During an ultrasound, doctors often diagnose problems requiring surgical intervention: ovarian cyst, uterine fibroids, polyp of the uterine mucosa.
5. Your blood will be checked for such dangerous diseases as hepatitis B (HbSAg), hepatitis C (HCV), HIV and syphilis (RW).
6. It is necessary to find out the group and the Rh factor of blood in both a woman and her husband. A positive Rh factor in a wife and a negative one in a husband are not cause for concern. But if, according to the results of blood tests, the expectant mother has a negative Rhesus, and a man has a positive Rhesus, then during the onset of pregnancy a Rhesus conflict is possible.
This is especially true for women who have ever undergone a blood transfusion, pregnancy, abortion or other surgical operation, because the probability of the formation of specific antibodies in their blood increases. Between a Rh-positive baby and a Rh-negative mother, a Rh-conflict can occur, leading to immune complications, for example, hemolytic disease of the newborn.
In case of a negative Rh woman, a positive Rh man and in the absence of a Rh antibody titer, Rh immunization is performed before pregnancy. Blood type conflict is less common, but doctors should also consider this fact.
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7. The next important criterion for assessing a woman's reproductive ability is to determine the concentration of hormones in her blood. Hormone tests are optional. Examination can be prescribed for menstrual irregularities, overweight, unsuccessful attempts to conceive a child for more than a year and previous pregnancies with an unsuccessful outcome.
A specific list of hormones for which you will need to be tested will be determined by the doctor based on your circumstances and state of health. Most hormones are tested on days 5-7 and on days 21-23 of the cycle. This list may include:
- prolactin, which affects ovulation,
- testosterone, a high rate of which can cause a miscarriage,
- DHEA-sulfate, on which the work of the ovaries depends,
- progesterone, responsible for maintaining pregnancy,
- estradiol, which determines the development of the uterus, fallopian tubes and endometrium,
- prolactin, responsible for the ovulation process,
- thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism,
- luteinizing hormone (LH), which affects ovulation.
8. Preparation for the conception of a child will be incomplete without a study of a potential future mother on factors of miscarriage. To do this, she takes tests that determine the content of antibodies to cardiolipin, chorionic gonadotropin, phospholipids and identify lupus anticoagulant.
9. A comprehensive examination ends with a visit to an ENT doctor, dentist and therapist. The ENT doctor will determine if you suffer from chronic diseases of the throat, nose and ear. It is impossible to admit that ARI and acute respiratory viral infections, which were severely transferred by mother, do not disturb the development of the fetal nervous system.
During pregnancy, it is difficult to carry out full dentistry, and at the same time, infections in the oral cavity provoke inflammatory processes. Therefore, it is ideally necessary to solve dental problems before a woman is in a position.
General urine and blood tests should be shown to the therapist. Based on the studies and examinations, a specialist will make a conclusion about your health status. You may be given additional diagnostics and appropriate treatment.
What tests should be passed to a man
A woman has to bear a future child. Nevertheless, half of the genetic material received by the baby belongs to the man. Not all husbands like to visit doctors, so a wife can reassure her husband that the delivery of tests and a visit to the clinic by a man is much faster and easier.
What you need to pass to the future father:
- A general analysis of blood and urine, which determine the state of health, the presence of infectious and inflammatory diseases in the body.
- Determination of blood type and Rh factor to identify the possibility of a Rhesus conflict between mother and fetus.
- A blood test for sexually transmitted diseases. If a man is infected with an infection, he needs to be cured before conception.
- Additional studies prescribed by the doctor. Among them can be a hormonal blood test, a spermogram (sperm test) and an analysis of the secretion of the prostate gland. If all the tests are normal, and pregnancy does not occur, the man will have to pass an analysis on the compatibility of the spouses.
In some cases, you may need a visit to a geneticist
Genetic tests should be submitted to married couples:
- having hereditary diseases in the family (mental illness, hemophilia, Duchenne myopathy, diabetes mellitus and others),
- where a man and a woman are in adulthood, because aging chromosome cells increase the risk of pathology during embryo formation,
- whose relatives suffer from a delay in mental and physical development for no apparent external reason,
- who already had two or more regressive pregnancies,
- in which the child has a hereditary disease.
If there is a good reason for a genetic study, you should not neglect a visit to a geneticist. Remember that hereditary diseases can occur over several generations in your child.
If the results of the tests were normal, you can safely begin preparing for conception. All prospective parents are advised not to smoke, drink alcohol, drink medicine, go to the bathhouse, and take care of their health for several months. Eat a healthy diet and take vitamins. Pregnancy planning means taking care of your unborn baby!
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Video: Preparing for Pregnancy
The obstetrician talks in detail about the preparation of women for pregnancy. The list of tests that must be done before pregnancy is given: STDs, Torch infections, hormones, vaginal candidiasis. It is also necessary to visit a dentist, gynecologist, therapist, etc. Follow the rules of personal hygiene and lead a healthy lifestyle.
Where do you plan to begin pregnancy planning for future parents to reduce the risk of having an unhealthy baby. You must start with yourself, with your lifestyle. It is optimal to undergo a medical examination 2-3 months before the planned conception. The volume of examination at the stage of pregnancy planning is selected individually, based on the age of the parents, the presence of chronic diseases, heredity, etc. Therefore, the examination plan when planning pregnancy is selected individually.
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Ovulation is the process of the exit of the female reproductive cell from the ovary into the free abdominal cavity. This phenomenon is observed approximately in the middle of the menstrual cycle - on 12-14 days from the last bleeding. Ovulation and 1-2 days after it is the time at which conception is possible.
For a fast pregnancy, the future mother should know the date of ovulation. A woman can use the calendar method, but it may not be accurate.
To calculate ovulation, a woman planning a pregnancy can focus on subjective sensations - an increase in volume and a change in the consistency of vaginal discharge, pain in the lower abdomen, and an increase in libido. However, more reliable results can be obtained by measuring basal temperature and conducting home tests.
Home ovulation tests are a strip that measures the concentration of hormones in the urine. There are also special devices that diagnose the release of an egg into the abdominal cavity by the composition of saliva. The most accurate method for calculating ovulation is to monitor the dynamics of follicular maturation on ultrasound equipment.
To give up smoking
Pregravid preparation for pregnancy must necessarily include smoking cessation. Cigarettes contain many harmful substances that have a negative effect on the body of the expectant mother and child. Carbon monoxide reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood, nicotine inhibits the central nervous system, resins are powerful toxins.
By itself, smoking significantly reduces the likelihood of conception, since nicotine and other harmful substances have a depressing effect on the internal female organs. Tobacco abuse can cause a lack of ovulation, causing infertility.
Smoking during pregnancy increases the chance of intoxication of the baby, his oxygen starvation. These factors are the cause of intrauterine growth retardation and development and pathologies of the unborn child’s nervous system. Using tobacco while carrying a baby can lead to premature birth.
Smoking abuse is the cause of premature placental abruption, intrauterine death of the baby. Nicotine and tar increase the likelihood of a child developing asthma and pathologies of the cardiovascular system. That is why a woman planning a pregnancy is advised to give up cigarettes in advance. Quitting smoking even at the very earliest stages of gestation does not exclude the occurrence of pathologies in the fetus.
Like smoking, alcohol intake affects the fertility of the female body. Long-term use of ethyl alcohol in large doses can cause atrophy of the ovaries, the main organ responsible for the onset of ovulation.
Alcohol use is one of the types of addictions, so a woman planning a conception should abandon it in advance.Reception of ethyl alcohol has a negative effect on the body of the unborn child.
Even a small amount of beer or dry wine can have irreversible effects. Ethyl alcohol increases the likelihood of placental abruption and miscarriage. Also, chronic alcohol consumption can cause developmental abnormalities in a child. The fetal nervous system suffers the most - children whose mothers took alcoholic beverages lag behind their peers in mental development.
Chronic alcoholism is the cause of fetal hypoxia. It leads to a delay in fetal growth and development of the unborn child. Also, drinking alcohol increases the likelihood of stillbirth.
The most important thing about preparing for pregnancy:
Body weight normalization
Increased or reduced body weight can cause problems with conception and bearing. To determine the normal weight of the expectant mother, you should calculate your BMI (body mass index). Its optimal values lie between 18 and 25. To calculate the BMI, you should divide the weight in kilograms by the square of growth in meters.
Excessive thinness causes female infertility. Fat cells are involved in the metabolism of sex hormones, with their severe deficiency menstrual irregularities and the absence of ovulation are observed.
Obesity, as well as lack of weight, negatively affects the fertility of the female body. Increased body mass disrupts the synthesis of progesterone, is a producing factor of polycystic ovary syndrome. Extra pounds increase the load on the musculoskeletal, urinary and cardiovascular systems of the mother during pregnancy.
To normalize body weight, a woman planning a pregnancy is recommended to observe the calorie intake. Also, in the period of preparation for bearing a future mother, it is useful to play sports. Developed muscle tissue has a beneficial effect on the course of pregnancy.
Folic acid intake
Folic acid or vitamin B9 is a substance necessary for normal cell division. Its deficiency during pregnancy provokes defects in the neural tube of the embryo and other pathologies associated with abnormal tissue growth processes.
A woman planning to conceive a baby should start taking folic acid 3-6 months before the alleged pregnancy. A lack of vitamin B9 also causes pathologies on the part of the mother - anemia and bone marrow disorders. Also, a deficiency of this substance can provoke female infertility.
Gynecological examination at the planning stage is the prevention of various pregnancy complications. It includes visual and instrumental examination on the chair, the delivery of a smear from the vagina for analysis and hormonal profile.
Preparation after a frozen pregnancy or miscarriage should include a search for the causes of the termination. Quite common causes of spontaneous abortion are genital infections and progesterone deficiency. Both conditions can be eliminated with the help of competent medical care.
Preparation for a second pregnancy after cesarean section without fail includes an ultrasound examination of the uterine scar. Its failure can cause organ rupture in the last weeks of gestation or during childbirth.
If a woman plans to conceive after 40 years, she should check the condition of the ovaries. Quite often, at this age, functional atrophy of the organ occurs. Ovarian failure is an indication for the use of a donor egg and IVF.
Preparation for pregnancy after 30 years should include a consultation with a genetics. This procedure is recommended for women at any age. However, after 30-35 years, the likelihood of congenital anomalies in the unborn child increases significantly.This feature is due to the fact that with age, the mother's eggs accumulate genetic mutations.
The specialist determines the genotype of a man and a woman, revealing the carriage of pathogenic mutations. The doctor can determine the likelihood of a child developing diseases such as thrombophilia, color blindness, achondroplasia, phenylketonuria, cystic fibrosis.
Genetics consultation is mandatory for couples with a history of more than 2-3 miscarriages in a row. Quite often, spontaneous abortion is a consequence of congenital malformations incompatible with life.
Chronic Disease Compensation
Pregnancy is a kind of test of a woman's body. During gestation, the load on all mother systems increases. That is why in order to fully prepare for pregnancy, the future mother should compensate for chronic pathologies.
The greatest influence on the course of pregnancy is exerted by diseases of the cardiovascular and urinary system. Especially dangerous are pathologies such as arterial hypertension, chronic renal failure, coronary artery disease.
Also, the expectant mother should maximally compensate for existing diabetes. During pregnancy, elevated or decreased blood glucose concentrations negatively affect fetal development.
Refusal of hormonal contraception
At this stage of medicine, the exact effect of oral contraceptives on the development of the unborn child is unknown. A woman planning a pregnancy should give up hormonal pills in advance - at least for one menstrual cycle.
After drug withdrawal, the woman’s body returns to independent hormonal regulation. This process may take several months. Against the background of the abolition of oral contraceptives, it is possible to simultaneously ripen several eggs in the first cycle. This may entail the conception of two or more children.
Before conception, the expectant mother should be mentally tuned for the upcoming pregnancy. The process of bearing can be complicated by various pathologies, a woman should know about them and be prepared for their appearance.
Psychological preparation consists in a positive attitude and elimination of stress. Negative thoughts of the expectant mother increase the chance of not unsuccessful attempts to conceive. Emotional stress and anxiety can cause malfunctions in the menstrual cycle and lack of ovulation.
Family history collection
A predisposition to many complications of gestation and childbirth can be inherited. When planning a conception, a woman is advised to talk with her relatives about pregnancy.
Weak labor, gestational arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus are just a small part of pathologies with a genetic predisposition. The future mother should be aware of possible problems and be prepared for their development.
Compliance with diet is one of the factors for successful conception and easy pregnancy. A woman should get used to dietary restrictions in advance, since during gestation it will be difficult for her to give up her beloved and delicious food.
The expectant mother's daily diet should include a sufficient amount of protein. Their best sources are lean meats, poultry and fish, as well as eggs and dairy products. A woman planning a pregnancy is advised to consume cereals, cereals, fresh vegetables, fruits and berries, as well as nuts.
In preparation for the conception of the expectant mother, you should limit the consumption of convenience foods, smoked, fatty and canned foods. She is also advised to reduce the amount of chocolate and other sweets in her daily diet.
Vitamin E intake
Vitamin E or tocopherol is responsible for the maturation of the eggs of the expectant mother. Its deficiency in the diet can cause infertility.The largest amount of vitamin E is found in foods of animal origin - chicken eggs, milk, meat, liver. However, tocopherol is also found in plant foods - sunflower oil, almonds, walnuts, mountain ash, rose hips.
With a severe lack of vitamin E, a woman can detect various symptoms. These include dry skin, decreased visual acuity, brittle nails, distraction, spots on the skin. In this case, the expectant mother is recommended to take tocopherol preparations.
Visit to the dentist
During pregnancy, deterioration of the teeth is observed. This feature is associated with an increase in the need for calcium and fluorine, which are spent on the growth and development of the baby. If the expectant mother has a slight caries, during gestation its abrupt progression is possible.
Also, caries and other diseases of the oral cavity are a source of bacterial flora. There is a risk of migration of pathogens to other organs, including the membranes. The ability to move bacteria through the body is associated with a decrease in the immunity of the expectant mother.
During the period of carrying the baby, it is forbidden to use many types of painkillers. Analgesic drugs can penetrate the placenta and have a negative effect on the fetus. That is why it is preferable to cure existing diseases of the teeth and gums before conception.
Dr. Komarovsky about preparing for pregnancy:
Communication with spouse
In preparation for pregnancy, future parents are encouraged to communicate with each other about the planning of the child. Such conversations strengthen the emotional bond between spouses, allow you to get to know each other better. Also during communication, you can draw up an approximate plan for the education of the future baby, based on the preferences of both parents.
It is useful for a future mother to find out the partner's attitude about the baby before conception. Sometimes she will have to reconsider her views on some things, come to a compromise with her husband. Solving everyday problems after pregnancy can lead to quarrels and misunderstandings.
The study of specialized literature
Before the planned conception of the expectant mother, it is recommended to carefully study all the nuances of the process. A woman should be familiar with the mechanisms of fertilization, the course of pregnancy, the upcoming birth. Knowledge helps to prepare for bearing a baby and not be afraid of various problems.
Also, a woman planning a pregnancy is recommended to study books and films on raising children and caring for them. The expectant mother should learn the rules of feeding, washing and swaddling the baby in advance.
Preparation for pregnancy for men
The processes of conception and gestation depend not only on the woman, but also on her partner. The quality of male seminal fluid is influenced by many factors - nutrition, smoking, alcohol, stress, physical activity. To identify pathologies of the reproductive sphere, the spouse is recommended to take a spermogram. This analysis will show the quality and quantity of male germ cells.
Sperm are updated in 2-3 months, which is why a man should lead a healthy lifestyle before the alleged conception. To improve the quality of seminal fluid, it is recommended to eat a balanced diet, exclude alcohol and smoking.
Also, men should not attend baths and saunas and take hot baths. High temperature provokes the death of sperm. To improve the quality of seminal fluid, a man is recommended to use the vitamin complexes Spematon or Pregnoton.
The future father should be tested for genital infections. Some of them may have a secretive course and not be transmitted to a woman. However, during pregnancy, the mother's immunity is reduced, which increases the likelihood of infection.
1. What is pregnancy planning?
Pregnancy planning is a set of preventive measures aimed at reducing the risks of having a baby with congenital diseases, as well as reducing the number of complications during pregnancy and childbirth in a future mother. It is advisable to begin preparation for pregnancy 3-4 months before the planned conception.
How to prepare for pregnancy? Necessary tests and examinations
It would seem so easy to conceive a child, there would be a desire. And if the body is not ready? It is better to find out a few months before the proposed conception. In any case, the couple will have time to restore health and give birth to a healthy baby.
Do you need a pregnancy planning step?
Of course, you should not subordinate the couple’s sex life to a certain schedule and wait for the results, as in production. This is unnecessary stress for both, and with this approach, the expectation of pregnancy can only be delayed.
Pregnancy planning is the decision that you want a baby, and a set of measures to diagnose and correct the health status of future parents. It is worth starting at least 3 months before the proposed conception - it takes so much time to undergo medical examinations and correct lifestyle and nutrition. If you find any diseases, such as genital infections, add to this time for treatment. With this approach, it is more likely to count on a favorable course of pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby. Moreover, this fact has not been disputed for a long time. For example, untreated TORCH infections before conception can cause miscarriage or abnormalities in the development of the fetus. The lack of folic acid and some other vitamins and minerals may possibly lead to the same consequences. No less fatal are problems with the nervous system - chronic stress can delay the desired pregnancy for an indefinite period. It is not for nothing that doctors recommend that future parents not be nervous, protecting themselves from stress factors if possible.
We undergo a medical examination while planning a pregnancy
First of all, prospective parents should make sure that there are no sexually transmitted infections and diseases that prevent conception. This requires visits to the gynecologist and urologist. If any of you in the family had hereditary diseases, if the pregnancy is planned from a man older than 40 years, or if the woman is over 35, and also if the pregnancy does not occur within a year, it will be useful to consult a geneticist. Consultations of other specialists are appointed based on the results of the following analyzes and studies.
Men and women:
- Determination of blood type and Rh factor - it is necessary to know about a possible Rh conflict.
- Fluorography - is done in order to exclude tuberculosis and neoplasms in the mammary glands.
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs - allows you to establish the presence of pathologies of the development of the uterus and the condition of the ovaries.
- Analysis for antibodies to rubella - if necessary, a rubella vaccine is given, since this disease is extremely dangerous for pregnant women.
- Urinalysis to identify diseases of the genitourinary system - during pregnancy, the kidneys, bladder and urinary tract work with increased load, therefore, existing diseases should be cured.
- A blood test for hormones - is required if the woman has irregular menstruation, overweight, a history of interruption.
- Analysis for genital infections - the presence of chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, gardnerella, Trichomonas, examine scrapings from the urethra and cervical canal.
- Analysis for genital infections.
- Spermogram - determines the number and motility of sperm. May be prescribed if pregnancy does not occur within a year.
Despite the fact that the list of studies seems rather large, they can be completed in a short period of time at family planning centers, and most of them are available at regular polyclinics and antenatal clinics.
2. Where to start the examination?
A comprehensive diagnostic examination is one of the most important tasks facing future parents. It is advisable for the expectant mother to undergo an examination at the obstetrician-gynecologist of the antenatal clinic, and a visit to the urologist is recommended for the future father of the child.
These specialists will give the necessary recommendations for further examination, write out directions for analysis and general clinical research. A woman can be sent for preventive vaccinations, as well as to the dentist and ENT doctor - to identify hidden infectious diseases.
After examinations, the therapist and medical specialists will give directions for research.
3. What other doctors need to be examined?
Both prospective parents should visit the general practitioner of the clinic to which they are attached. The therapist can identify chronic diseases and viral infections that need to be cured before conception.
After examinations, the therapist and medical specialists will give directions for research.
If you have a family history (giving birth to children with hereditary diseases in this family or with relatives), it is advisable to visit genetics at the Morozov Children's City Clinical Hospital of DZM.
Do not forget that specialists of medical organizations make appointments by appointment.
4. What tests need to be passed?
Future parents need to pass the following tests:
- analysis for genital infections,
- general blood analysis,
- general urine analysis,
- blood chemistry,
- analysis to determine the blood group and Rh factor (in the presence of Rh-negative blood - Rh antibodies),
- blood tests for HIV, hepatitis B and C,
- a blood test for hormones, including thyroid hormones,
- analysis for latent infections (TORCH infections: toxoplasmosis, other infections: chickenpox, parvovirus, listeriosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes),
- coagulogram, hemostasiogram.
It is advisable for a man to undergo a study of sperm and prostate secretion (according to the testimony of a specialist doctor), and a woman - an ultrasound diagnosis of the pelvic organs (ovaries and uterus) and examination of the mammary glands (ultrasound or mammography).
After receiving the results of all analyzes, the obstetrician-gynecologist and urologist at the second appointment will conclude about the state of health of the parents and further prevention or treatment of the revealed diseases and pathologies.
What necessary examinations does a woman need to go through when planning a pregnancy
Psychologists say that in those families where preparation for pregnancy is carried out, children develop better both physically and emotionally. The mother’s body will serve the baby as the first cradle for a long nine months, and he has the right to demand comfortable conditions for his development. Therefore, when planning pregnancy, a woman should take care of her own health and, long before pregnancy, ask herself the question: “Am I physically ready to bear the baby?” You will receive an answer to it after you undergo a full medical examination. You will have to spend a lot of time to get around the necessary specialists and get their blessing for this important and responsible business.
Where to start a woman preparing for pregnancy, what specialists should I visit, deciding on this crucial step?
First visit a gynecologist. This doctor will evaluate your reproductive system and make a decision on its readiness for conception and gestation. When preparing a woman for pregnancy, a specialist must make sure that the development of the genitals and the absence of inflammatory diseases in them are correct.It is especially important to make sure that there are no sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially since some of them can be asymptomatic, but at the same time complicate the course of pregnancy by the threat of miscarriage or premature birth and disrupt fetal development.
What tests are done in preparation for pregnancy when visiting a gynecologist? They will take a swab from your vagina indicating the condition of the microflora and examine for the presence of uninvited, but very aggressive invaders: chlamydia, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, gonococci, herpes simplex and papilloma viruses, gardnerella, toxoplasma, cytomegaloviruses and candida.
What other tests need to be passed in preparation for pregnancy for the expectant mother? You have to do clinical and biochemical blood tests, a general urine test, determine the blood group and the Rh factor. Blood tests for syphilis (the Wasserman reaction known to everyone), HIV infection and hepatitis B and C are mandatory.
After passing these tests in preparation for pregnancy, you will definitely be referred for chest x-ray to exclude the initial manifestations of tuberculosis. Unfortunately, the incidence of tuberculosis in our country is growing, and not only tramps and alcoholics are exposed to this disease, but also quite decent people. Therefore, this examination is from the category of those that you need to go through when planning a pregnancy.
You can also be offered a hormonal examination, indicating the condition of female sex hormones. This examination is necessary when planning pregnancy for those women who have problems with conception. If you have not yet tried to get pregnant, then there is no need for this examination. The same can be answered with the proposal to do tests for thyroid hormones: "I have no problems with this organ." Too often, commercial medical centers prescribe an extended examination for financial purposes, so ask your doctor to explain the validity of a particular analysis.
When planning a pregnancy, in parallel with the necessary examination by a gynecologist, you must also visit doctors of other specialties.
Do you often get a cold? Perhaps these are manifestations of chronic tonsillitis or pharyngitis, which do not really annoy you in everyday life, but are the focus of a chronic infection in the body. And during pregnancy, when immunity is reduced, this smoldering hearth can glow in full force. By all means, in preparation for pregnancy, undergo an examination by the otolaryngologist, and he will tell you how to improve the "flimsy" nasopharynx.
The dentist will not disregard the carious process that has begun. After all, the growing fetus will require calcium from the mother's body to build the skeletal system, which can cause tooth decay. Take an interest in the composition of the filling material: does it contain mercury that can have a negative effect on the development of the fetus.
If you wear glasses, then before planning a pregnancy, an examination with an optometrist is required. Indeed, the load on the organs of vision during pregnancy, especially during childbirth, increases significantly, so the optometrist will definitely watch you throughout pregnancy, and his advice will help inform the pregnancy and give birth on your own, without jeopardizing your eyesight. But even without the participation of a gynecologist, you should know that with myopia, an oculist consultation is mandatory.
Also, when planning a pregnancy, you need to be examined by an infectious disease doctor, especially if you have been tormented by herpetic eruptions on the lips (“fever”). The insidious virus must be eliminated before pregnancy, so that it does not harm the baby. Rubella disease of a pregnant woman leads to serious consequences.In almost all cases, pregnancy ends with spontaneous interruption at any time or the birth of a sick child. If you have not had this “innocent” childhood infection and have not been vaccinated against it, get vaccinated now, but no later than three months before conception. You will also discuss this issue with the infectious disease specialist.
If during puberty you have been diagnosed with autonomic-vascular dystonia by hyper- or hypotonic type or with impaired heart rhythm, be sure to visit a cardiologist. Perhaps, along with such an examination, when planning pregnancy, you will have to make an electrocardiogram to make sure that the cardiovascular system is ready to bear the baby.
Pay the most serious attention to the spine, especially if you have a claim to this "pillar of life." It will have a significant load, especially in the last months of pregnancy, so bring it in order before conception.
Now you know where to start preparing for pregnancy, and which doctor should you visit after visiting all specialists? The outpatient marathon will end with a visit to the therapist, who, taking into account the conclusions of all specialists and the analysis data, will give a final conclusion about the full combat readiness to fulfill the plan.
But do not think that only absolutely healthy women are allowed to bear a child. If you suffer from any kind of chronic disease, then you should not put an end to the desire to have a child. Preparing the body for pregnancy thanks to the achievements of modern medicine is also possible for women with heart defects, diabetes, kidney and liver diseases, diseases of the musculoskeletal system and other pathologies of organs and systems. It is only necessary, prior to conception, when planning pregnancy, to undergo a course of anti-relapse treatment (if necessary), be observed by specialists from the very early stages of pregnancy, comply with all the recommendations of doctors, and go to a specialized maternity hospital for childbirth, and not during labor, but in a week or two before the estimated date. Some women are forced to spend their entire pregnancy in the pathology department, but they do not grumble, realizing that only constant medical supervision will give them the happiness of becoming a mother.
Get rid of bad habits
Smoking, regular intake of even low alcohol drinks, drug use should be excluded by future parents. At first, such habits weaken the body as a whole and lead to a number of chronic diseases. Secondly, they can adversely affect the development of the fetus from the first days after conception, so you should get rid of them in advance. It should be borne in mind that giving up bad habits at first causes stress, which is better to survive before pregnancy, and not in fact.
5. Is it possible to receive treatment for infertility in Moscow?
Yes it is possible. If indicated, couples can be sent to treat infertility using the in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure for free - at the expense of compulsory medical insurance.
In Moscow, a program for the treatment of infertility with IVF has been implemented since 2007. At the expense of the system of compulsory medical insurance, infertility treatment is provided by both state and commercial medical organizations in Moscow.
The IVF waiting list can be downloaded on the Moscow Department of Health website in the "Additional Information" section on the right side of the screen.
Step No. 1. Examination before conception
A comprehensive diagnostic examination is one of the most important tasks facing future parents. Where to begin? From a visit to the gynecologist. It is good if the couple prepares for the first appointment in advance.We must recall our chronic and hereditary diseases, the approximate duration of the menstrual cycle, take a medical card for admission, since some diseases transferred even in childhood can have a negative impact on the health of the unborn child. Detailed information will help the doctor to make the most complete picture of the future examination, to identify problems.
During the reception, the gynecologist will conduct an examination and take smears, prescribe directions for tests and general clinical tests: a general analysis of blood and urine, a blood test for HIV, hepatitis, ultrasound diagnostics of the pelvic organs (ovaries and uterus).
The main thing before pregnancy is to eliminate all possible internal sources of infections. Therefore, the expectant mother is sent to an in-depth study of all body systems.
How can a woman properly prepare for pregnancy planning
Another important step where to start pregnancy planning is to bring your weight back to normal. The hormones that control the ability to reproduce offspring are significantly affected by the amount of adipose tissue in the body. Being overweight can negatively affect the possibility of conception, as well as cause problems during pregnancy and childbirth. If your forms are far from the coveted “90-60-90”, try to lose a few pounds before trying to conceive a child. This will increase the chances of conception and relieve problems during pregnancy. Consult a nutritionist to help you lose weight without risking your health. If you are on a diet, try to make it to follow it for a long time. For proper preparation for pregnancy, it is necessary to reduce the intake of fat and sugar, change the diet in favor of more frequent meals, but in smaller portions. In your daily routine, include regular exercise. Exercise burns fat, suppresses appetite, strengthens the muscles, which will have a lot of stress in the last months of pregnancy and especially in childbirth.
Nutritionists use an objective indicator called body mass index (BMI) to control body weight.
In the process of how to prepare for pregnancy, you need to determine your own body mass index. To do this, you need to body weight, expressed in kilograms, divided by height, expressed in meters and squared:
- BMI = body weight (kg): height (m) 2
- For example, 60 kg: 1.622 = 22.9.
- BMI less than 20 - underweight,
- BMI from 20 to 24.9 - normal weight,
- BMI from 25 to 29.9 - overweight,
- A BMI of more than 30 is obesity.
Note: When planning a pregnancy, gynecologists recommend women with a body mass index below 20 and above 30 to put their weight in order before having a baby.
We have a healthy lifestyle
Positive attitude, adherence to sleep and rest, moderate physical activity, walks in the fresh air, balanced diet - all these simple components of a healthy lifestyle become especially important for future parents. In the coming years, they will have to go through a lot of various trials, and constant care for their health should become a good habit, which they will subsequently instill in their child.
Step No. 2. Tests for infections: rubella, toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus and others
Most infections are dangerous during initial infection during pregnancy. Therefore, an analysis for infections is given in order to find out if you have previously had a disease. And if not, then special care should be taken during pregnancy. The abbreviation ToRCH appeared from the first letters of the most dangerous infections for the fetus: Toxoplasma (toxoplasma infection) - Rubella (rubella) - Cytomegalovirus (cytomegalovirus) - Herpes (herpes).
When it is precisely known that you had rubella as a child, you can skip this point.In case of uncertainty, you need to take an analysis for antibodies - IgG and IgM. If IgM is detected, it means that you first became infected with the virus (this situation is quite rare). Pregnancy should not be planned for 3 months. But IgG, on the contrary, should be - their presence indicates a previous disease and the acquisition of immunity to rubella. If both IgM and IgG are absent, then you need to be vaccinated so as not to become infected during pregnancy. Pregnancy can be planned three months after vaccination.
Toxoplasma - an antibody test of a toxoplasma infection, the infection of which comes from domestic animals, most often from cats. Approximately 15% of women of reproductive age suffered this infection, that is, 75% of women can become infected with toxoplasma during pregnancy. If you don’t have IgG and IgM antibodies during the analysis, then there is a danger of getting sick during pregnancy. It is recommended to limit your communication with dogs and cats, thoroughly boil or fry meat, be sure to wash and peel vegetables and fruits before eating, do not clean the cat's toilet without disposable gloves, wash your hands well after any manipulations with meat and seafood.
Cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy threatens developmental pathologies and intrauterine infection of the fetus. Infection is usually transmitted by airborne droplets. If during preparation for pregnancy a high level of cytomegalovirus is detected in the blood, you should undergo a course of antiviral therapy and only then plan for conception. If the result is negative, some precautions should be observed: wash your hands well before eating, do not kiss the lips of young children, and it is advisable to limit your communication with them, especially if you work in a kindergarten.
The herpes virus is in the body for life. Any treatment is aimed only at reducing its activity. It will not be possible to completely get rid of it. Therefore, tests are given in order to assess the risk of primary infection during pregnancy.
In the event that something bothers (itching, burning, copious discharge), there were pregnancies with an unsuccessful outcome, or a woman is preparing for IVF, it is necessary to conduct an analysis for sexual infections (chlamydia, myco and ureaplasmas, gardnerella). If herpes or chlamydia is found in the expectant mother, the husband also needs to be tested for these infections.
The right diet when preparing the body for pregnancy
And how to prepare for pregnancy planning, if the expectant mother is underweight? This problem further reduces the chances of conceiving and bearing a child. Often thin women suffer from menstrual irregularities and lack of ovulation. What conception is there if the main participant - the egg - has not matured and has not appeared on a date with the sperm!
The reason for weight loss is not only malnutrition, but also such appetite disorders as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, excessive physical activity and some diseases, such as hyperthyroidism (increased thyroid activity). In these cases, the root cause of the disease must be treated.
Nutrition in preparation for pregnancy should be complete. Women who ate poorly before conception may experience various complications, especially if their diet continues to be inadequate: spontaneous miscarriage, anemia, constipation as a result of insufficient fiber in the diet, nausea in the morning caused by low blood sugar, and long exhausting childbirth due to lack of physical strength. If a pregnant woman lacks nutrients, the baby may be born premature or low birthweight. The intrauterine growth retardation is not excluded, especially during the last 3 months. Malnutrition can lead to underdevelopment of the placenta and fetal death.Proper nutrition in preparation for pregnancy eliminates strict diets. When you are in the mood for future motherhood, forget about any restrictions and beauty contests - start eating fully to provide the unborn baby with the necessary nutrients.
Vegetarian women need to know that eating soy products significantly reduces the chance of conception. Soy contains a chemical substance - genistein, which prevents the introduction of a sperm into the egg. In this regard, it is recommended for the period of ovulation to abandon products that include soy.
Analyze your food cravings and abandon the usual sandwiches, marinades and smoked meats in favor of high-grade proteins, fruits, vegetables and vegetable fats. The additional inclusion of vitamins and minerals in the diet during preparation for pregnancy will create a supply of this strategic raw material in the body and will not allow the fetus to feel the need for vital substances.
How to choose a doctor and clinic
When choosing a clinic, you need to understand that the relationship between the patient and the doctor should be partnerships, and nothing else. In no case should the patient feel like a begging party, and the doctor should show indulgence, and a woman should have confidence in the doctor at a subconscious level. The doctor should always explain everything in a simple language, telling in detail why and why examinations, drugs and procedures are prescribed, and not just put before the fact.
When choosing a doctor, you can focus on your psychotype. For those who are used to doing business strictly, a cheerful doctor may seem unprofessional, and vice versa. For nine months, the patient will not have to be shy to openly discuss everything with her doctor, sometimes call up at night and ask questions - therefore, it is important that they both are psychologically comfortable with each other. Ideally, you should first choose a clinic, and then select a doctor according to the psychotype. This is also possible in a regular antenatal clinic: for this you need to write a statement in the name of the manager with a request to transfer you to another doctor.
Developing the right diet when planning pregnancy
The health of the child depends on the nutrition not only of the pregnant and lactating woman, but also on the diet of both parents even before conception. In addition, the woman in the first month still does not know about her pregnancy, and the formation of a number of vital systems of the child’s body is already beginning. Therefore, deficiency of certain nutrients, minerals and vitamins (nutrients) should be prevented in advance. Doctors often recommend starting a vitamin-mineral complex with folic acid 3 months before an expected pregnancy.
- Folic acid. When planning a pregnancy is one of the most important elements. She participates in cell division necessary for fetal growth, contributes to the normal development of the nervous and cardiovascular systems of the unborn child, reduces the risk of congenital malformations of the fetus and termination of pregnancy. Contained in nuts, legumes, citrus fruits, green salad. The recommended dose of folic acid supplementation for a healthy woman planning a pregnancy is 400 mcg per day.
- Iodine. It is necessary for the normal functioning of the mother’s thyroid gland, on which the gestation of the fetus depends. Iodine contributes to the full development of the mental and physical abilities of the unborn child, while the lack of this substance adversely affects the formation of the nervous system of the embryo. In Russia, almost all regions are more or less considered iodine deficient. To compensate for the lack of iodine intake, the daily diet should be supplemented with a large number of iodine-containing products - fish and seafood, figs.When planning pregnancy, it is necessary to obtain a daily rate of iodine, which for an adult is 0.2 mg.
- Vitamin A. During pregnancy planning, a woman needs vitamin A for normal reproductive function, and during pregnancy, for the formation of the placenta, for fetal bone growth. The recommended dose for consumption is not more than 3000 IU per day. It does not form in the body on its own. Contained in carrots, tomatoes, pumpkin, fish, fish oil. It does not always come in sufficient quantities from food, so doctors often prescribe additional complexes that contain vitamin A. It is important to pay special attention to their composition - do not exceed the recommended daily dose of vitamin A, this can harm the development of the fetus. The same applies to the diet - in case of exceeding the norm of consumption should be excluded from the diet foods with a high content of vitamin A.
- Vitamin D. It is necessary for the normal functioning of the female reproductive system and the development of the skeletal system of the fetus. The daily recommended intake of vitamin 400 in the body. Contained in hard cheeses, chicken egg yolk, butter, fish oil, caviar. It is worth considering that fat-soluble vitamins, which include vitamin D, accumulate in the body and can harm the future fetus. If the doctor has prescribed this vitamin as a single drug or as part of a complex, it is very important to study their composition - vitamin D should be 50-100% of the daily intake, but no more!
Of course, it is difficult to comprehend and choose the right dosage of such a large amount of vitamins and minerals. It is especially difficult to control their consumption with food, especially since the nutrient content can fluctuate depending on the heat treatment and a number of other factors.
Step number 3. Hormonal background
Assessing the hormonal background of a woman, determining the concentration of hormones in the blood, taking into account the phase of the menstrual cycle, is an important examination criterion. Hormones are the main link in building the reproductive function of women and men, the successful implementation of which depends on the work of the hypothalamus – pituitary – ovary system. If one of the components fails, the entire work of the reproductive system changes, and, therefore, the ability to conceive is reduced. When a woman has a broken cycle, there is increased hair growth, acne, obesity, there were pregnancies with an unsuccessful outcome (regression, miscarriage), the doctor always sends for a study. It determines the list of hormones for which you need to be tested. Each case is individual.
How to start a man before planning a pregnancy
Proper preparation for pregnancy is important for both women and men, because two are involved in the conception of a child, so you can not ignore the health of the future father. Where to start a man when planning his beloved's pregnancy? In contrast to women who already have a supply of ovum in their ovaries since birth, nature sperm cells constantly germinate and mature within 75 days. From this follows the recommendations of doctors to future dads - three months before the planned conception, switch to a healthy lifestyle.
Here's where to start preparing for pregnancy for men who want to become fathers:
- give up cigarettes and alcoholic beverages,
- switch to proper nutrition (products that increase sperm quality and testosterone production: nuts, seeds, germinated grains, turkey, cheese, seafood, leafy vegetables, liver, salmon, milk),
- receive additional vitamins and minerals that have a positive effect on sperm maturation (folic acid, vitamins C and E, zinc, selenium),
- when planning pregnancy, men need to reduce the use of coffee (caffeine reduces the speed of sperm movement),
- to live an active lifestyle,
- stop visiting saunas and baths (testes like cool, overheating is contraindicated for them),
- do not carry out x-ray examinations.
Not so long ago, it turned out that overweight and obesity in men lead to a decrease in sperm quality, namely: its volume during ejaculation decreases, and the number of damaged sperm cells increases.
Scientists explain this as follows:
- fat people have hormonal status disorders, primarily a decrease in testosterone and other hormones that affect reproductive function,
- testicles wrapped in adipose tissue overheat,
- an important role is played by the lifestyle leading to obesity.
Men with a body mass index (BMI) of 20 to 25 units have the highest sperm quality.
In preparation for pregnancy, an overweight man will have to lose weight. If a woman has the same problem, both will lose weight. It's okay, it's easier to do this together than choke on saliva, watching your half screw up a steak of fried potatoes at a time when you have a plate of low-fat cottage cheese in front of you.
Before planning a pregnancy, a man should remember that the anabolic hormones, which some use to pump muscles, "like Schwarzenegger", have a depressing effect on sperm maturation and movement.
Another factor that negatively affects sperm quality is the long-term use of antidepressants. Fortunately, there are not many patients among young men whom doctors prescribe these drugs, but we must remember that taking antidepressants for a month leads to DNA damage in a significant number of sperm.
In the process of how to properly prepare for pregnancy, men need to visit the andrologist and urologist. It is necessary to identify and eliminate at an early stage of the disease of the male genital area, for example, prostatitis. Be sure to undergo an examination for the presence of STDs. Make blood tests for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B and C. Determine the blood group and Rh factor, undergo fluorography.
List of doctors to contact
Initially, to designate a complex of studies before pregnancy, you need to contact a therapist, who in turn directs a married couple or woman to a gynecologist. The obstetrician-gynecologist takes standard smears on the flora and the presence of infections. In the absence of complaints, a referral is not assigned further.
- Endocrinologist (with excess weight, diabetes, thyroid disease),
- Cardiologist (if there are complaints about the work of the heart muscle, with vascular diseases, with hypo or hypertension),
- Ultrasound in the presence of the testimony of a gynecologist, gastroendocrinologist,
- Gastroendocrinologist with constant heartburn, ulcers, colitis and gastritis.
A standard examination procedure is a consultation with a family therapist or gynecologist. Based on the anamnesis, a complex of studies is determined.
A standard set of studies helps to identify or rule out the most common diseases that can interfere with the normal development of pregnancy.
In the presence of chronic diseases, an extended research program is used.
We accept vitamin complexes
Food products can not always satisfy the daily requirement of a modern person for vitamins and minerals. The amount of nutrients in food is constantly decreasing. Scientists attribute this to widespread depletion of the soil, as well as to early harvesting for long-term transportation to points of sale. For example, if leaf lettuce was previously considered a powerful source of calcium, now the content of this trace element in it has critically decreased — by 85%. The magnesium content in parsley and dill fell by more than 30%. In addition, nutrients from food are not fully absorbed.As a result, to get the necessary amount of nutrients, a person would have to eat 5-7 kg of various foods per day. This is physically impossible, so taking vitamin-mineral complexes, especially when planning pregnancy, is necessary.
Pregnancy planning should be comprehensive. You should start with visiting doctors and undergoing research, in parallel, you should reconsider your diet and lifestyle, as well as take vitamin and mineral complexes with the optimal composition for women planning to conceive.
Step number 4. Blood type
During the pregnancy planning period, the couple is recommended to determine the blood group and rhesus, to do an analysis for antibodies to the Rh factor. A positive Rhesus factor in women and a negative in men do not present any cause for concern. If the wife has Rh-negative blood, and the husband has Rh-positive blood, then during pregnancy a Rhesus conflict may develop. A future mother who underwent a surgical operation (including abortion) is not the first to receive a blood transfusion or pregnancy, and specific antibodies are likely to form in the blood. In a Rh-negative mother with a Rh-positive baby, immune complications are possible (hemolytic disease of the newborn, etc.), this mainly manifests itself from the second and subsequent pregnancies.
Less common is blood type conflict. The probability of conflict increases in the following combinations: a woman has a blood type I, a man has any other, a woman has a II group, and a man has a III or IV, a woman has a blood group III, and a man has a II or IV. With such combinations, it is recommended to test the blood for antibodies to group antigens, if the planned pregnancy is not the first. When the first - it is necessary to conduct a study on group antibodies from 8 weeks of pregnancy.
Genetic screening for couples planning pregnancy
In some medical institutions, couples are offered to undergo a genetic examination when planning pregnancy, a consultation of this specialist is necessary in the following cases:
- pregnant age 35 years and above,
- among relatives of spouses there are people with hereditary diseases,
- a woman is having miscarriages, or a previous pregnancy ended in the birth of a dead child,
- children from previous pregnancies suffer from chromosomal diseases or have malformations,
- the husband was exposed to radiation or working in hazardous work,
- such an examination of a married couple when planning a pregnancy is necessary if the man and woman are married or barren.
Referral to a genetic consultation without exception for all couples when planning a pregnancy is made for selfish reasons and has no basis.
After making sure that your spouses and yourself are completely ready to continue the family, proceed to the implementation of the plan. But do not turn the conjugal bed into a training ground to achieve the goal, and intimacy - into the fulfillment of the conjugal duty that promotes childbirth. Love each other, enjoy every minute of happiness and remember: a child conceived in love will bring joy to the family and the world.
How to choose a vitamin preparation when planning pregnancy?
When planning a pregnancy, as well as at different times, the need for vitamins and minerals is different. Moreover, it is important not only to compensate for the lack of nutrients, but also to prevent their overdose. That is why it is recommended to take complexes created specifically for each stage of pregnancy. An example is the Complivit Trimestrum line of drugs. The first formula “Complivit Trimesterum first trimester” is recommended to be taken from the moment of pregnancy planning until the 13th week of pregnancy.The drug contains a 100% norm of folic acid, iodine, lutein, as well as physiological doses of the necessary micro and macro elements, which help reduce the risk of spontaneous miscarriage in the early stages, congenital intrauterine malformations of the cardiovascular and nervous systems of the fetus, as well as the full development of the nervous system system, brain and intelligence of the future baby.
In addition, preference should be given not to dietary supplements, but to drugs. They have a more pronounced therapeutic effect, confirmed by clinical trials. In any case, you should first consult with your doctor and read the information in the instructions for use or in the leaflet.
Step number 5. Ultrasound
At the stage of pregnancy planning, ultrasound is performed in the first phase of the cycle. Various diseases of the pelvic organs are revealed, in which the ability to conceive is impaired. In some cases, surgical intervention may be required: myoma - a benign tumor of the uterus, a cyst or tumor of the ovary, a polyp of the uterine mucosa. Ultrasound examination will help to exclude the presence of pathological processes in the genitals and to ensure a calm pregnancy and successful birth of a child.
How to start pregnancy planning for a man and woman
Health workers take care of your health on the eve of conception and will take care of it throughout your pregnancy. But the main responsibility for the well-being of the child lies with the expectant mother and father, and they are obliged to do everything in their power to ensure that the child is born healthy.
Before a woman plans pregnancy, smoking and drinking alcohol should be stopped at the stage of preparation for conception. In medicine, there is such a thing - "fetal alcohol syndrome", which is formed as a result of the use of pregnant alcoholic beverages. The more she drinks this, so to speak, future “mother”, the stronger the manifestations of this syndrome in a child. Alcohol easily penetrates the placenta and has a toxic effect on the fetus. A child is born of little weight, grows poorly and develops; later on, mental retardation is manifested in him. Experienced midwives immediately distinguish such a newborn: small eyes, underdeveloped lower jaw, low nose bridge, abnormal arrangement of fingers, deformation of the skeleton, etc.
The laying of the main organs and systems of the fetus occurs in the first weeks of fetal life, and the toxic substances accumulated in the body before pregnancy enter the fetus, negatively affecting its development. Therefore, stop taking antibiotics, hormonal drugs, including contraceptives, at least 3 months before the planned conception.
How to prepare a woman for pregnancy if she used hormonal contraceptives, and now decided to become a mother? In this case, it is necessary to give the body time and the opportunity to establish the production of its own hormones, which was suppressed by the intake of artificial ones. This will require at least 2-3 months, after which you can count on the maturation of a full egg and a sufficient level of necessary hormones. At this time, switch to the use of mechanical and biological methods of contraception (male and female condoms, counting “safe” days, etc.).
Conscious motherhood should prepare future parents for pregnancy not only physically and physiologically, but also morally. Each pregnancy should be desired, and the child - long-awaited and unique, regardless of whether it is in a row: the first or fifteenth. A woman with a positive attitude to pregnancy radiates joy, from which it becomes warm around, and especially to her husband.The maternal instinct is biologically dependent on the action of hormones, the level of which changes throughout the menstrual cycle, preparing the woman for the adoption of the child and tuning the body to this goal. A man in adulthood is not always ready for the status of a father. And so that the news of the ensuing pregnancy does not become an emotional shock for him, prepare it gradually and unobtrusively and do not be offended if you read confusion and fear in his eyes instead of the expected joy. Give him time and opportunity to realize this news, and you will be convinced that he is glad to the future child not less than yours.
Biochemical analysis of blood, urine
A general blood and urine test is prescribed everywhere, when contacting any doctor. At the time of consultation, the doctor should have no more than 2 weeks of research. At the heart of the diagnosis shows the presence of an inflammatory process (leukocytes are exceeded), also pay attention to the number of red blood cells in the urine (kidney problems) and blood sugar (diabetes).
How to plan a pregnancy for a man and a woman
Not so long ago, the phrase “pregnancy planning” seemed an abstract concept that had no moral or practical basis. In the era of “developed socialism”, all processes taking place in the state were subordinated to planning, from the production of hosiery to the launch of rockets into space. But few people had the idea to plan the onset of pregnancy and the time of birth of children. Soviet women relate to a fait accompli depending on the circumstances: they took it for granted and resolved from the burden at the appointed time or, without hesitation, went to an abortion, holding the world championship for this indicator.
Before planning a pregnancy, some couples ask astrologers to calculate the most favorable moment for conception, referring to the experience of the ancient Greeks, who established a connection between the location of the planets in the sky and the birth of geniuses. According to legend, Alexander the Great was conceived.
In some cases, pregnancy planning should be medically indicated. For example, one of the parents is allergic to flowering birch (May) or meadow flowers (June). Plan your pregnancy so that your baby is born between August and March. So he will be less likely to inherit a predisposition to allergies.
If a woman's previous pregnancy had an unfavorable outcome (miscarriage, premature birth, giving birth to a dead baby, ectopic pregnancy) - this is a serious reason for planning a pregnancy together with a doctor. The help of doctors will also be needed for those couples who have had cases of hereditary diseases among their relatives, as well as for future parents who come into contact with harmful factors in the workplace.
Step number 6. Clinical examination before conceiving a child
A mandatory program for the expectant mother also includes a visit to an ENT doctor, dentist and therapist. What are they needed for?
Dentist. It is widely believed that during pregnancy, teeth necessarily “roll in”. Before pregnancy, teeth need to be treated, and during it, a woman should take care to get enough calcium. Then not a single tooth will suffer during pregnancy.
ENT doctor. This consultation is very important because you need to determine if you have chronic diseases of the ear, nose, and throat. Any pregnancy is accompanied by a weakening of immunological protection. That is, you will catch all the infections that are in the bus, metro and over the workplace, much more often than before pregnancy. You must not allow troubles to get to your baby through the placental barrier. SARS, influenza, severely transferred by the mother, can cause disturbances in the development of the nervous system of the baby.
Therapist. With general blood and urine tests, you need to visit a therapist who, based on research and examination data, will give an opinion on your health status. If necessary, the doctor will prescribe a more detailed diagnosis. After that, if necessary, appropriate treatment is prescribed.
In certain cases, a visit to an endocrinologist, geneticist and other specialists will be required.
Doppler diagnostics or ultrasound is used if there is a suspicion of an abnormal structure of the uterus, in the presence of amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), in case of a disturbed cycle on the basis of hormonal insufficiency. Pipe conduction and other anomalies cannot be determined in this way.
Pregnancy Planning Calendar: The Best Month to Conceive
Modern young women who are engaged in the creation of wealth and career advancement are in no hurry to get children. They relate to the birth of a child wisely and consciously. Such an attitude towards procreation is worthy of respect. However, in the pursuit of true or imaginary values, do not miss the time best suited for the birth of the firstborn. The woman’s body is most prepared for this task at the age of 22-23 years. At the very least, try to implement your plan before 25.
American scientists believe that for the birth of the firstborn, the ideal age of the mother is 34 years. It is by this age that an optimal balance is achieved between a woman’s health and her material well-being. According to overseas doctors, a woman who gave birth to her first child at 34 years old, for health reasons at any age, will be 10 years younger than her peer who gave birth at 18 years old.
Preparedness for motherhood is based on a powerful instinct presented by nature to every woman. But, on the other hand, this process depends on the personal qualities of the expectant mother and her relationship with surrounding people. One woman at 18 years old has a sense of responsibility for the child, while another, and at 40, continues to be a carefree birdie.
Almost from birth, a girl - girl - woman is preparing to become a mother. As a child, playing with dolls and “mother and daughter”, caring for younger brothers and sisters, then watching the actions of young mothers caring for babies, and then, at the request of her friend, watching her baby, the girl subconsciously prepares to realize her main mission in life . At this stage, she gains a favorable experience of emotional communication with babies, which in the future will help in the formation of maternal behavior. But here comes a time when the maternal instinct urgently requires implementation, and the desire to have a child outweighs all other thoughts.
In the modern world, with its frantic rhythm, poor ecology, high mental stress, the body of any person is daily exposed to negative influences from the outside, which negatively affects his health. And the expectant mother and the new life that is emerging inside her are most sensitive to any adverse factors. Therefore, care for the health of the child must be long before conception, thinking first of all about your own health.
The main business of your life should not be left to chance. It is necessary to prepare for it mentally and physically. Conception of a child should be programmed for the most convenient period for the family, and the time remaining before it must be used for preparation.
Most modern women are supporters of conscious motherhood, recommending choosing such a time for conception that the onset of pregnancy is expected and desired, and does not become shocking news that violates the family's life plans. It is advisable to choose the time that seems most suitable for the appearance of the heir.The ideal situation is when problems with housing, school, work and career are solved, and the appearance of a child does not entail a refusal to achieve the intended goal.
Pregnancy planning became possible also because the beautiful half of our country finally learned how to use contraceptives, and contraceptives themselves are constantly being improved and enable women to lead a full life without calculating convulsively “dangerous - non-dangerous” days at the moment of intimacy. Due to the increased culture of contraceptive use, the number of “on-the-fly” marriages and the number of abortions, especially among underage girls, have sharply decreased. Let’s say thanks to the media, including glossy women's magazines, which tirelessly promote safe sex and modern methods of contraception.
The first thing you need to start planning for pregnancy is to decide which season is best for conception. This question is often asked by women who are set up for serious preparation for pregnancy. Even among experts there are different opinions on this matter. Here are a few points of view, choose the one that is most suitable for you according to the persuasiveness of the arguments.
- The best time for conception is August-September. Rested during the summer months, absorbing the energy of sunlight, enriched with fresh "living" vitamins, the woman is more than ever ready to bear a healthy child.
- In Russia, the peak in fertility occurs in March, that is, conception takes place in June. There is also a simple explanation for this: the long winter months and the gloomy slushy spring have a depressing effect on the population, causing many to be irritable, tired and depressed. But the generous sun's rays return interest in life, stimulate the production of endorphins (homons of joy) and sex hormones, increase attraction to the opposite sex. And the kids, born in March - April - May, spend the whole summer in the fresh air, under the gentle sun and meet winter grown up and stronger. It is noted that children born in spring are on average 1 cm taller than their “autumn” peers. So the pituitary gland reacts to the abundance of sunlight, producing growth hormone in an increased amount.
- If pregnancy occurs in the winter season, the baby will be born in August-September, and during lactation, mother will be able to take advantage of the generous gifts of autumn and saturate her body with vitamins, minerals and trace elements, and then transfer them to the baby. Unfortunately, the first months of pregnancy, when the laying of organs and systems of the fetus takes place, fall on the "slushy-flu" period, which increases the likelihood of a future mother becoming ill.
- American scientists argue that the best quality sperm is produced in men from October to February, and suggest that spouses use these months for pregnancy.
Composing a conception calendar when planning pregnancy, many mothers believe that the birth of a child in spring and summer makes it easier to care for him, since in the warm season it takes less effort to gather for a walk, the child spends more time outdoors, grows and develops better , and mom herself in the summer feels more energetic.
The daily routine of “winter” children is more dependent on the vagaries of the weather. In the freezing winter season, you have to sit at home, limiting yourself to a “walk” with the window open. Charges on the street are delayed due to the need to wear a lot of clothes, and any normal child really does not like this process. In addition, during this period, the incidence of colds increases, and if a patient appears in the apartment, it is difficult to protect the baby from infection.
The child’s birth time affects his school performance.Born in August will be the youngest in the class, and children born in the fall will be the oldest, more mature, so their academic performance will be higher.
If you have decided on the desired month of conception, when planning a pregnancy, you will need to observe some conditions:
- to study your menstrual cycle and note the most favorable days for conception,
- learn how to determine the day of ovulation using methods that can be found in the specialized literature,
- have sex during ovulation, which increases the chances of success,
- it is advisable to plan a joint vacation with her husband at this time in order to escape from everyday worries and indulge in love in a new environment,
- It’s not worthwhile to devote anyone to your plans in order to avoid annoying questions on this topic.
If the expectant mother is studying at the institute, then the best time for having a baby is summer, when the examination session is behind. The first weeks after discharge from the hospital will require you to exert all physical and moral strength, so help from your husband or close relatives will be required. Will they be able to take a vacation during this time? If you plan to have a second child, choose the time of his birth so as not to infringe on the interests of the older one. For example, September is the most difficult month for a child of primary school age, and caring for a newborn during this period will deprive the first-grader of maternal attention.
Material prepared by ladycharm.net
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Step number 7. Preparing for conception
If everything turned out to be in order, you can begin preparations for conception. It is recommended that future parents do not drink any medicine for months without consulting a gynecologist. Do not smoke, do not drink alcoholic beverages, do not abuse coffee, eat more fruits and vegetables, do not take hot baths, do not go to baths and saunas, try not to get sick, start taking folic acid vitamins. Take care of your health - and nothing will spoil the long-awaited meeting with the baby!
Expert: Nina Ulyanova, head of the obstetric physiological department of the Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology. V.F.Snegireva, candidate of medical sciences, doctor of the highest medical category
Article provided by "I want a child" magazine
What you need to do in each trimester
The first trimester is mainly tests, the second is highly specialized doctors, and the third is constant communication with the gynecologist. The frequency of visits to the gynecologist is determined by the course of the pregnancy itself, but according to the standard it is 12 visits. The higher the gestational age, the more often meetings become.
First, pregnancy must be correctly diagnosed: check the growth of the hCG hormone, and also make sure that the pregnancy is uterine. At the eighth week, the fetal heartbeat should be heard. After this, you need to go through all the tests again: pregnancy has an effect on all body systems. Up to 12 weeks, a Prisca study for chromosomal abnormalities is done, at this point it is possible to establish the presence of a probability of abnormalities in the development of the fetus. In the first weeks, the health of the unborn child is laid and he is especially sensitive to adverse effects.
After 12 weeks, in the second trimester, highly specialized doctors should identify possible problems that may affect the course of pregnancy. It is convenient to do this at this time, since the fetus is not so vulnerable. After 20 weeks, an exchange card is issued - the main document of the pregnant woman. It should always be carried with you so that, if you are unexpectedly hospitalized, the doctor knows about all the analyzes and features of the course of pregnancy. If she is not present at birth, then the woman will be placed in the observatory for unexamined women and women with pathologies.
In the presence of an increased number of white blood cells or if there is a suspicion that needs to be dispelled or confirmed, an additional set of studies is prescribed by the doctor. The study is expanded, more expensive, but effective.
TORCH-complex is done for at least two months. The study allows to reveal hidden infections from the collected arterial blood (from a vein):
- rubella antibodies
- cytomegalovirus infection
The abbreviation “O” in the analysis means “others” or other analyzes. These items may include any infections that the doctor suspected. As a rule, the complex does not exceed 7-9 types of infections, 4 of which always remain unchanged: rubella, herpes, Trichomonas and cytomegalovirus.
Additionally, the amount of hormones is studied:
- 17-OH progesterone
- androstanediol glucuronide,
- DEA - sulfate,
For each individual diagnostic study, it is necessary to prepare. As a rule, general recommendations are the absence of fatty foods on the eve and the delivery of an analysis on an empty stomach.
There are several diagnostic options that are assigned based on indications:
- in case of hereditary diseases on the part of the mother or father,
- genetic abnormalities of older children,
- with gene incompatibility in the presence of a large number of fading, miscarriages,
- with genetic disorders associated with incest (marriage between relatives).
The most common diagnostic option is karyotyping-cytogenetics. The basis of the study is the identification of violations of the structure of chromosomes, a hereditary disease that can provoke mutations in the fetus.
A method for examining the cervix for the presence of cells and foci of erosion, cancer, dysplasia. The study takes place in the gynecologist’s office, a special gynecological chair and an apparatus with an expansion glass are used. The procedure does not bring pain, it takes several minutes, after the examination, the doctor issues a document with a description of the problem and a drawing of the scale of the damage.
Additional studies rarely used for indications
- Post-coital test (compatibility),
- pH of cervical mucus
- HLA - typing (similarity of spouses by antigens),
- SCR (reaction of a woman’s lymphocytes to a man’s sperm),
- Gene polymorphism (predisposition to preeclampsia, heart attack, hypertension),
- Biochemistry in the presence of suspected oncology.
When to cook on purpose
Analyzes that are aimed at studying the hormonal background during cytological studies, as well as checking the blood for the amount of sugar (for diabetes) will require special training. In the evening, before taking the analysis, it is necessary to exclude the intake of fatty fried foods, meat products. Also, do not drink tea, water in the morning until the test.
Biorhythm also plays a huge role in the study of some indicators. For example, donating blood for sugar is important not only on an empty stomach, but also until 9 a.m. local time. By 11 o’clock indicators even on an empty stomach will not be so true.
Tests where preparation is not needed
Studies in which you should not worry about food intake and its quantity are general blood tests, urine tests, genetic tests, as well as a number of procedures for microflora and tumor markers. All the features of the delivery must be known in advance from the doctor, since the price of such tests is high, with an inaccurate result, a second delivery will be required.
The impact on the result of the study is provided by a person’s lifestyle, food intake and alcohol. In some cases, it is not recommended to drink alcohol-containing drinks even with a small amount of ethanol.
When analyzing for compatibility or when revealing polymorphism of vascular tone genes, it is important to keep a diet for several days, and during MAR testing it is important to study the reaction of a woman’s white blood cells to a man’s sperm no later than 5 hours after sexual contact.
Preparing for pregnancy is as difficult and responsible a mission as pregnancy itself. However, in the case of timely identification of the causes that can provoke complications, tears and grief after a fading pregnancy can be avoided. Having spent several thousand on tests, you can preserve the nerves and health of the mother and child.
Pregnancy planning. Which doctors should a man and woman consult before conceiving a baby?
Pregnancy should be not only desired, but also planned. The right approach will help minimize risks for women and unborn babies and give birth to a healthy baby.
This article will tell you in detail about which doctors must be passed to both partners at the stage of pregnancy planning, as well as when to do this and what tests must be passed before conception.
Why undergo a physical examination and take tests before conception?
Even if future parents believe that they are healthy, it will be useful to make sure of this:
- For a woman, going to the doctors is important first. After conception, she may begin to experience immunity problems. This leads to an exacerbation of chronic diseases, which will have to be treated with conservative methods so as not to harm the fetus. It is better not to allow the development of the disease, but to prevent it. For this, the expectant mother needs to visit a number of specialists.
- It is also important for a man to monitor his health during the planning stage of pregnancy. Going to the doctor and assessing your general health will help eliminate the risk of transmission of infections and problems with conception.
When to start preparing a woman and a man?
The minimum period of preparation for pregnancy for a man and a woman is 3 months. During this time, future parents will have time to visit all the necessary doctors, take tests and give preventive vaccinations.
If a woman or a man suffers from chronic diseases or the couple has a history of unsuccessful pregnancies, then this period should be increased to 6 months. In more serious cases, an individual term is assigned, which can increase up to a year.
Attention! The sooner the couple begins to prepare for conception, the more time will be spent on preparing the woman’s body for bearing a child.
Both man and woman should visit the following specialists:
- Therapist - a doctor whom both a man and a woman need to go to. He evaluates the general condition of the body. In addition, the therapist appoints consultations of narrow specialists. However, he does this not regarding pregnancy planning, but regarding the need for screening for acute and chronic diseases.
- Geneticist - is responsible for the study of the chromosome set of men and women. The specialist conducts a genetic analysis that will help predict the predisposition of the unborn child to genetic and other diseases. The study is mandatory for women over 35 years old and men over 40 years old, as well as in cases where the family has hereditary diseases or the couple has a history of bearing problems. A woman can also be sent for genetic research according to the results of studies with abnormalities.
- Reproductologist - A doctor who deals with reproductive health. It is he who treats male and female infertility, and also prepares for the IVF procedure. A specialist visit is necessary if the couple has problems conceiving, as well as for their prevention at the stage of pregnancy planning.
Additionally, a woman goes through doctors:
Gynecologist - the main female doctor, from a visit to whom it is necessary to begin preparations for pregnancy.It is he who conducts the initial examination and prescribes the necessary tests. In the case of problems in the body of the expectant mother, the specialist sends the woman to narrower doctors, including a reproductologist.
- Endocrinologist - specializes in diseases associated with impaired endocrine system. This system has a great effect on the metabolism, as well as the physical, mental and sexual development of a woman, so the consultation of the endocrinologist before pregnancy has its place. Monitoring by a specialist is especially important if a woman is aware of thyroid problems and is taking hormonal drugs to adjust hormone secretion levels.
- ENT doctor. Responsible for the condition of the ear, nose and throat. During pregnancy, against the background of lowered immunity, a woman may develop a virus of a viral nature, as well as an exacerbation of chronic ENT pathologies. This can harm not only the woman herself, but also the unborn child. Therefore, it is important to conduct an examination of these body systems even at the stage of pregnancy planning.
- Ophthalmologist - monitors the state of vision of the future mother. In addition to determining the presence of myopia, hyperopia or astigmatism and recommendations regarding these pathologies at the planning stage, the doctor gives a conclusion to the gynecologist about the possibility of childbirth in a natural way. It is especially important to visit it before conception to women with significant deviations from the organs of vision.
- Dentist - Another mandatory specialist who must be visited at the stage of preparation for the birth of a child. During pregnancy, the hormonal background changes dramatically and the consumption of vitamins and minerals increases. This leads to problems with teeth and gums. In addition, diseases of the oral cavity can lead to complication of pregnancy.
- Immunologist - studies diseases related to the immune system and affecting it. A doctor's visit is considered mandatory if the woman has a history of miscarriage or a missed pregnancy.
Reference! Future dads who want to prepare for conception are fewer than expectant mothers. However, it should be remembered that success in this matter largely depends on men's health.
What kind of doctor should a man contact if a woman cannot get pregnant?
Doctors for men:
Urologist - The chief male doctor in planning pregnancy. It is he who treats most diseases that can lead to problems with conception. Carries out an initial examination and assigns the necessary analyzes to the future dad, on the basis of the results of which, if necessary, sends them to narrower specialists.
- Andrologist - A specialist in the treatment of pathological processes and diseases of the male genital area. In addition to treating impotence, erectile dysfunction, and prostate problems, he deals with such a serious problem as male infertility. Therefore, if a woman does not manage to get pregnant, a man first of all needs to contact this specialist.
This is a complete list of the most frequently required specialists when planning pregnancy. The decision to appoint doctors' consultations is made by an observing gynecologist in women or a urologist in men. This is characteristic without being registered in the dispensary for people.
If one of the future parents suffers from chronic diseases and is regularly observed by a specialist, then he can independently, at the stage of pregnancy planning, get the advice of the attending physician in order to determine the presence or absence of relapse of the disease, as well as its complications and the need for prevention. This is especially true for a woman, since pregnancy reduces the protective functions of the body and the likelihood of exacerbation of a chronic disease increases significantly.
Where to go for examinations?
Important! When planning a pregnancy, doctors can be examined both free of charge, in the clinic at the place of residence, and in paid clinics.
In many cities of Russia there are family planning centers. Future parents can go there and get referrals to all the necessary specialists.
Visiting doctors is an important stage during conception planning, which is better not to neglect a woman, not a man. If the couple takes care of their health and the health of the unborn baby, she needs to contact specialists and pass the necessary tests 3 months before the proposed conception. It is important to exclude the presence of infections of the genitourinary system, as well as exacerbation of chronic diseases.
Screening for pregnancy planning: which doctors are needed
Creating a family, a couple always dreams of the imminent appearance of a child.
If a decision is made, it is important that future parents undergo a medical examination before planning a pregnancy, as their diseases can affect the conception, formation and development of the fetus.
A full-fledged baby is born primarily in healthy parents. Standard procedures and analyzes include consultations with the following specialists.
The first examination when planning a pregnancy should be with the therapist. It will include the following activities:
- general blood analysis,
- general urine analysis,
- identification and treatment of hidden chronic diseases, because during the period of bearing a child a woman will be banned from taking many medications,
- normalization of blood coagulation indicators, deviations of which can provoke a future miscarriage or excessive blood loss during childbirth,
- the blood type is immediately determined, and if the future mother has I, and her partner has a different one, the therapist will have to take a number of measures to avoid an immunological conflict,
- if a woman has negative Rhesus blood, and her husband has a positive Rh, it will be necessary to do a blood test for the presence of Rh antibodies.
These indicators are important for both spouses, therefore, the therapist should undergo an examination of the man when planning a pregnancy in order to prevent the occurrence of various problems in the future.
The main necessary examinations when planning pregnancy, both a woman and a man should undergo a gynecologist. They include:
- ultrasound examination of the uterus and appendages will show the absence or presence of formations, the treatment of which usually requires surgical intervention,
- analysis for STIs (abbreviation for sexually transmitted infections) pass both spouses,
- smear of the cervix for the presence of its pathology.
It would be good for a man to make a spermogram to make sure that his sex cells are complete. This will eliminate problems with conception.
After the initial examination by the gynecologist when planning pregnancy, the doctor can prescribe narrower and specific procedures to identify various pathologies and deviations in their part.
After this, a couple (both men and women) are encouraged to go to the genetics.
Usually, not everyone is assigned a genetic examination when planning a pregnancy. It must be done in the following cases:
- if in the pedigree of any of the future parents there are such serious hereditary diseases as Alzheimer's disease, Down or myodystrophy,
- in women - age after 35 years, in men - after 40,
- if you cannot conceive a child for a long time,
- after a frozen pregnancy,
- close kinship between future parents,
- after a miscarriage,
- if congenital abnormalities are present in one of the previous children.
Genetic studies at this stage involve the following analyzes and procedures:
- blood chemistry,
- study of the karyotype - identification of the quantity and quality of chromosomes of both paired,
- if the future parents are blood relatives, there are problems with conceiving or bearing previous pregnancies, HLA typing (compatibility tests) is performed to check whether a healthy baby can be born in the examined couple.
These are the main doctors who definitely need to consult both future parents at this stage. If time and means allow, you can do a comprehensive examination before planning pregnancy, which will allow a woman in the future to avoid many problems with bearing a baby.
If the couple set out to give birth to a strong, healthy baby and conceive it without any problems, it is better not to confine ourselves to the three specialists indicated above, but to expand this list. A complete comprehensive examination before planning pregnancy includes the following algorithm.
- General gynecological examination, for a start - colposcopy.
- Therapist: general urine and blood tests to determine the group, the Rh factor (both in both spouses), for clotting, checking hemoglobin, white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, color index, ESR, white blood cell count.
- The TORCH complex detects the presence of antibodies to such dangerous infections as rubella, toxoplasma, herpes, CMV, chlamydia.
- Tests for infection by a gynecologist: conventional smear, PCR (examination of both future parents).
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs 2 times during the cycle: after menstruation and before it.
- Visit to a geneticist.
- The coagulogram determines lupus anticoagulant, antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin and phospholipids.
- Hormone tests: testosterone, follicle-stimulating (FSH), progesterone, lutenizing (LH), estradiol, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4).
- Dentist: the child will take all the calcium from the mother’s body, and if a woman wants to keep her teeth beautiful and healthy after the baby’s birth, she needs to go through this specialist in advance.
If future parents responsibly approached pregnancy planning, they need to know in advance about the necessary comprehensive examination, which they will have to undergo approximately six months before the desired date. This will increase their chances of a safe conception and trouble-free bearing of the baby.
Before pregnancy it is necessary: what doctors and examinations do I need to undergo?
In order to give birth to a healthy child, at least healthy parents are needed, and it does not matter if it is the first pregnancy or fifth. In addition to health, you need to eat right, get rid of bad habits, exclude the intake of most drugs, do not get tired, do not get nervous, do not strain.
All these points are much easier to realize when a pregnancy is planned, and not a surprise.
Where to start planning?
The first is health. It is with him that the planning of pregnancy is worth starting. Conception itself should be planned no earlier than three months from the start of planning. That is how much time an average healthy woman will need in order to go through all the necessary doctors, take tests and drink vitamins that prepare the body for future stress.
According to statistics, up to 20% of pregnancies end in a miscarriage in the early stages. This is due to the fact that the woman does not plan a pregnancy and in the first months may not even suspect her.
While waiting for the baby, the obstetrician-gynecologist becomes the chief doctor for the woman, who monitors her health, prescribes tests and, if necessary, sends them to a consultation with other specialists. But before you find out about your happy situation, a visit to the doctors is also necessary. Before pregnancy, you will need to undergo:
- A gynecologist who will take a smear to check for the presence of infectious diseases will do a colposcopy - an examination aimed at the timely detection of such a dangerous disease as cervical cancer.
- A therapist who will prescribe the necessary tests and studies in the presence of chronic diseases.
- An endocrinologist will need to be visited by those who have any problems associated with hormones, thyroid gland or high blood sugar.
- The dentist, in order to make an examination of the oral cavity, restore all those in need of treatment in the teeth or get rid of those that cannot be saved. During pregnancy, such procedures are not recommended.
- Mammologist to determine if the mammary glands are ready for the lactation process.
- Genetics, it is mandatory to visit those couples who have inherited diseases in the family. Based on the survey and blood tests, the doctor will be able to predict the likelihood of having a healthy baby.
If you have chronic diseases, then this list should be supplemented by an ophthalmologist, urologist, ENT specialist, allergist, cardiologist and gastroenterologist.
Those who suffer from problems with weight, and it does not matter whether they are associated with its excess or deficiency, do not forget to consult a nutritionist and create your own diet with it. You may have to lose those extra pounds or, on the contrary, gain them before conception.
During pregnancy, a double load falls on a woman's body. It is important to know exactly in advance whether he can handle it. Indeed, during pregnancy, most drugs may be banned, which means that it will be much more difficult to treat a disease that was missed at the planning stage. Usually, the doctor prescribes:
- A blood test for antibodies to childhood infections, such as rubella, which during pregnancy causes malformations incompatible with the baby’s life.
- still for toxoplasmosis, Analysis of one infection that can cause a dead pregnancy and miscarriage.
- the following tests for herpes and cytomegalovirus, which cause disturbances in the development of the brain and heart defects. The insidiousness of this virus lies in the fact that with good immunity it does not manifest itself in any way and the woman, without suspecting anything, is able to carry it for many years. Therefore, it is so important to identify it and conduct the necessary treatment before pregnancy.
- blood tests for HIV and various types of hepatitis.
The above analyzes are often referred to as the TORCH complex. Evaluation of its results should be done only by your doctor.
In addition, a woman is necessarily assigned a Rhesus conflict:
- General blood test for biochemistry and determination of the Rh factor, which can indicate a coagulogram of hidden diseases or the likelihood of a hemostasisogram.
- by or chlamydia, which is done in order to determine the state of the blood ureaplasma system.
- serious microflora, helping to establish the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, such as intake, gonococcus or alcohol. Any of them can lead to a disruption in the development of 3 cm cm, missed pregnancy and premature birth. And at the planning stage, becoming an analysis is an obstacle to a successful conception.
Most doctors today instead of a smear prefer to do a PCR examination, which is more accurate and saves time.
In addition, a woman a few months before conception needs to do fluorography and ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs.
However, visits to doctors and numerous tests are not the only things to do when planning a pregnancy. It is necessary to change the lifestyle and nutrition and, first of all, to abandon bad habits.The recommendations that doctors give to this analysis are simple and known to almost everyone. But, despite this, they do not lose their relevance. When planning a pregnancy, you must:
- Revise the diet and make it balanced for proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Especially if you have problems with weight or you are a supporter of non-traditional food systems, such as, for example, a raw food diet or vegetarianism.
- With a doctor, choose the suitable vitamin-mineral complex for which you need to start three months before the expected conception.
- Make a habit of walking in the fresh air, ideally at least two hours a day.
- Exclude andrologist, smoking, round-the-clock attachment to the computer, drink a lot of coffee and not get enough sleep.
- If possible, avoid crowded places, especially during the cold season.
Planning after a Frozen Pregnancy
If in the past you had a miscarriage or a frozen pregnancy, then a new conception should be postponed for at least six months. In some cases, doctors advise increasing this period to one year. During this time, the organospermogram can recover, and specialists can conduct all the necessary examinations and find out the cause of what happened.
Analyzes in this case, first of all, are aimed at finding out the reasons for what happened.
If a miscarriage has occurred more than once, then the analysis of karyotypes is necessarily added to the list. This genetic examination allows you to determine the degree of compatibility of the spouses and the likelihood of having a healthy baby. Pregnancy itself takes place under the strict supervision of doctors from the very beginning until the moment the baby is born.
What does a man need to do?
A man also needs to go through doctors and get tested. In addition to fluorography, total volumetric blood and Rh factor, a strong half of the family needs:
- Pass a blood test for childhood infections and cytomegalovirus, which can be transmitted from the spouse of the expectant mother.
- PCR testing for infectious diseases, which can also affect conception and can be transmitted to mother and baby.
- Visit and pass to determine sperm motility and viability.
Do not be afraid of such a plan for preparing for pregnancy. Thanks to modern methods used in medicine, most of the tests and examinations are done by doctors in a day. And future parents will feel much calmer knowing that they are healthy and ready for a new person to appear in their family.
What to check before pregnancy
Pregnancy planning has become the norm today. But often the number of tests that are offered to be given to a woman before proceeding directly to conception exceeds all reasonable limits. Are they all needed?
Some doctors advise checking the content of trace elements in the blood before pregnancy, others say that you can limit yourself to the TORCH complex, while others recommend testing for all existing genital infections.
Recently, I began to notice that the average age of pregnant women and women who want to get pregnant who come to our clinic is about 27-30 years. Women began to give birth later and approach this issue consciously.
And this is wonderful, because a planned pregnancy always proceeds more smoothly than spontaneous, because proper preparation (filling up vitamin deficiency, examining, identifying predispositions and adverse conditions, diagnosing possible diseases and correcting them) helps prevent most of the complications that develop during pregnancy.
There are conditions whose detrimental effect on pregnancy can be completely eliminated if detected in advance. For example: lack of immunity to rubella.
If a woman becomes infected during pregnancy, then, as a rule (in 50% of cases), this will lead to fetal malformations.
However, having done just one vaccination in advance (in three months), you can completely protect yourself and your unborn child.
- Another condition that can be prevented is iodine deficiency. It is diagnosed in 30-40% of Russian women. Receiving daily 150 micrograms of potassium iodide before and 200 micrograms during pregnancy completely solves this problem. A complication of the iodine deficiency condition can be: miscarriage, fetal death, mental retardation in a child, etc.
- There are conditions that cannot be prevented, but the timely diagnosis and correction of which (before pregnancy or in the early stages) allows you to save and endure the desired child. For example, antiphospholipid syndrome, hyperandrogenism (increased levels of male sex hormones), various endocrinopathies (diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease).
- We can talk about the joy of motherhood only when the baby is born healthy. To do this, you need to take your desire to have children very seriously.
So, what does a woman who plans to get pregnant in the near future need to do?
- Consult a gynecologist. The doctor should conduct an examination, assess the condition of the cervix using colposcopy and a cytological smear. You must also make sure that you do not have infectious and inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs. To do this, pass the following tests: inoculation on the flora and PCR analysis for sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, cytomegalovirus, herpes, HPV) and their sensitivity to antibiotics from the vagina. If infections or inflammations are detected, then at the moment it is impossible to become pregnant. It is necessary to be treated and get negative tests, after that - a green light to the cherished goal. It is recommended to pass tests for infections not only to you, but also to your husband.
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs on 5-7 and 21-23 days of the cycle. In the first case, the general condition of the pelvic organs is assessed, in the second, the presence of the corpus luteum (whether ovulation has occurred) and the transformation of the endometrium.
- Blood hormones. In the first (5-7 day of the menstrual cycle) and in the second (21-23 day) phases of the cycle (TSH, T3, T4 free, ATTPO, LH, FSH, PG, T, estradiol, DGA-S, 17-OH, etc. .). Only a doctor can prescribe which hormones and in what phase of the cycle you need to pass to you.
- Hemostasiogram, coagulogram - features of blood coagulation.
- Blood chemistry.
- Find out the blood group and Rh factor of the woman and husband. If a woman has Rh-negative blood, and her husband is Rh-positive and there is no Rh antibody titer, then Rh immunization must be performed before the planned pregnancy. If the antibody titer is detected (in quantitative terms), then it is necessary to monitor the titer growth during pregnancy. If a woman has 1 blood type, and her husband has any other type, then, during pregnancy, once a month it is necessary to donate blood for group antibodies.
- Determination of lupus anticoagulant, antibodies to phospholipids, antibodies to cardiolipin, to chorionic gonadotropin - they are factors of miscarriage.
- General clinical blood test.
- General urine analysis.
- Dental consultation - to solve dental problems outside of pregnancy. If a tooth problem occurs during pregnancy, you will not be able to do an X-ray examination if you need it, in addition, doctors will be limited in their choice of medications.
- TORCH-complex - a group of infections that are dangerous to the fetus: rubella, toxoplasmosis, herpes, cytomegalovirus infection, etc. Any of them in a woman "in position" - a direct indication for termination of pregnancy. Before pregnancy, it is necessary to determine antibodies to toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus, chlamydia , pathogens of rubella and herpes - quantitative analysis (with titer). The presence of IgG antibodies means immunity to these infections and is not an obstacle to pregnancy.The presence of IgM means an acute stage of the disease - planning in this case must be postponed until recovery. If there are no IgG antibodies to rubella, a vaccination is necessary. Do not ask your parents if you had rubella; it’s impossible to know for sure - the disease can occur under the guise of acute respiratory infections and vice versa. Only a blood test for antibodies can give accurate information. Rubella vaccine - live, immunity is developed for 2-3 months, during which strict protection is necessary. With a vaccine accidentally given in the early stages of pregnancy, it is not necessary to interrupt it - the vaccine strain is safe for the fetus. Communication of a pregnant woman without immunity with newly vaccinated people, including children, is also safe, in contrast to really sick people. If cytomegalovirus infection is detected, antiviral treatment is necessary, and in some cases, immunization is mandatory. This infection is very dangerous. It causes various deviations in the development of the fetus and during pregnancy - polyhydramnios, hydrocephalus, hepatomegaly, abortion, fetal death of the fetus, etc.
- A blood test for HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, RW.
Finally, I would like to wish all the women who are preparing to become mothers: love and trust - your body, husband, unborn child, doctor, fate. Everything will be then and so, when and how it should be exactly with you.