Hemoglobin is the main respiratory protein of the hematopoietic system, which is an integral part of red blood cells. Its components: protein (globin) and heme (non-protein) parts.
Hemoglobin performs a transport function
Hemoglobin performs a transport function, delivering oxygen and removing carbon dioxide products from tissues.
Oxygen is attached to iron, and the products of carbon dioxide exchange are attached to the protein part of hemoglobin. The period of functioning of the red blood cell with carbon dioxide will soon come to an end, as a result of which the red blood cell dies.
The normal hemoglobin in women is from 115 to 160 g per liter of blood. During the month, the level may vary. For example, during the menstrual cycle, the hemoglobin content becomes slightly lower due to blood loss and increased iron consumption.
Pregnancy also refers to the physiological reasons for the quantitative change in the level of respiratory protein in red blood cells. Due to the increasing volume of blood, it liquefies, as a result of which the amount of hemoglobin per unit of blood decreases. During the bearing of the child, there is also an increased consumption of heme iron, required to build the placenta and provide the fetus with oxygen. It is in this regard that there is a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin from 16 to 32 weeks. The level is falling within 15 percent.
A decrease in the indicator below 110 g / l in combination with color indicators below 0.8 and the number of red blood cells less than 3.6 per 10 12 / l may indicate the development of iron deficiency anemia.
A decrease in hemoglobin levels can develop with:
- Bleeding, including chronic.
- Lack of vitamin B12 and folic acid.
- Inadequate use in writing products containing heme iron, or poor absorption of the latter in the intestine.
A decrease in the level of heme iron, as a rule, affects the condition of the skin, hair, and nails. This is due to the fact that the body, not getting oxygen, restricts the latter's access to the least important tissues.
The main manifestations of reduced hemoglobin in women:
- Common symptoms:
- noise in ears,
- decreased performance
- shortness of breath with slight physical activity (rarely at rest).
- Local - pale skin and sclera.
Diseases that can cause a decrease in hemoglobin in women:
- Chronic inflammatory processes of the digestive system (gastroduodenitis, peptic ulcer disease, pathology of the hepatobiliary system).
- Chronic gynecological diseases (uterine fibroids, endometriosis), leading to latent and obvious regular blood loss.
Hypothyroidism may cause a decrease in hemoglobin in women
Physiological reasons may be intense physical activity or living in high altitude conditions. Such deviations from the norm are no more than 10–20 units. Hemoglobin values above 180-190 g / l are alarming and require medical attention.
Diseases and conditions that can lead to causeless, at first glance, an increase in this indicator:
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
- Heart defects.
- Pathological processes of the cardiovascular system.
- Bowel obstruction.
Manifestations of elevated hemoglobin levels are nonspecific:
- mood swings
- decreased performance
- decreased or lack of appetite,
- local acrocyanosis (blueness of the tip of the nose and fingers).
With a decrease in hemoglobin, both correction of alimentary iron (coming from food) and taking iron-containing drugs are necessary. It is necessary to find out the reasons for the lowered level of heme iron, in connection with which a consultation with a gastroenterologist, gynecologist, endocrinologist is prescribed.
Forrum Lek is an iron-containing drug prescribed for women with low hemoglobin levels
Proper nutrition, sleep, daily walks in the fresh air in combination with iron replacement drugs are able to correct hemoglobin levels within one to two months.
Products that increase hemoglobin in the blood - table
With an elevated level of heme iron, symptomatic treatment is not carried out until the causes that led to this condition are clarified.
Before prescribing specialized therapy, diet and disaggregants (blood thinners, viscosity reducing drugs) may be recommended. This is necessary to prevent thrombembolism (blockage of the pulmonary artery) and, as a result, the development of a stroke or heart attack.
Hemoglobin is an important component of the hematopoietic system. In women, he is to one degree or another responsible for reproductive function. Normal hemoglobin values are necessary for a sufficient supply of oxygen to tissues, especially brain and cardiac. In this connection, it should be periodically monitored for its level in order to suspect deviations in time and, if necessary, start therapy.
The norm of hemoglobin in women
For the norm in women, it is considered to be an indicator of 120-140 g / l. But here it should be noted that the range of values depends, first of all, on age, physical activity, physiological state of the body, and even smoking. The highest rates are observed in newborns. Then the level decreases, but gradually increases from 3-6 months. Upon reaching the age of 12, gender affects the concentration of hemoglobin.
The development of anemia in women
Hemoglobin is a protein that is part of red blood cell cells. Its main function is to deliver oxygen molecules to tissues and internal organs, remove carbon dioxide and toxic compounds. Normal for life support is considered an indicator of 117-120 g / l in middle-aged women. But for various reasons, a violation of a healthy level occurs:
- diseases of the urinary system
- hidden bleeding
- malignant neoplasms,
- strict diets or fasting,
- monthly menstruation
- blood loss due to injury,
- bone marrow pathology.
Anemia in women occurs with problems of blood formation, a violation of the iron-binding ability of the blood. Hemoglobin drops during pregnancy, after childbirth or in a major operation. According to the severity, several stages of the disease are distinguished:
- Easy. It is characterized by a drop in the indicator to 90 g / l, does not require hospitalization, is easily corrected by a change in diet.
- Medium. Hemoglobin decreases to 70 g / l, there are health problems, exacerbation of chronic diseases.
- Heavy. The indicator falls below the level of 70 g / l, the patient needs medical treatment in a hospital.
The main signs of anemia in women, requiring additional diagnosis:
- chronic fatigue, irritability, muscle weakness,
- low-grade temperature no higher than 37.3 ° C for a long time,
- frequent SARS,
- pressure drops.
The lower the hemoglobin level, the more pronounced the symptoms. With chronic anemia in women, pallor and cyanosis of the skin, shortness of breath when walking or climbing stairs are observed. In 90% of patients, low blood pressure and digestive problems are detected.
During menstruation, the hemoglobin level can drop sharply by 30 units.But with proper nutrition and the absence of chronic diseases, it is restored within 7-10 days without consequences.
Answers to frequently asked questions:
Is there a difference between the "female" and "male" hemoglobin norm?
The standard values of hemoglobin in women are slightly lower, this is due to monthly blood loss. In addition, the level of testosterone - the male sex hormone, is significantly lower, and it is he who stimulates blood formation. Therefore, there is a difference between "male" and "female" hemoglobin. It should also be noted that during menstruation, hemoglobin can also fall - up to 100 g / l.
Pregnancy and hemoglobin level. There are normative values for pregnant women, because while waiting for the baby the woman experiences a tremendous load. Due to the development of the fetus, the blood volume increases, therefore, the norm is a hemoglobin indicator for pregnant women within 110-130 g / l.
Age and hemoglobin. However, the indicator is directly affected by age. With the onset of the premenopausal period, hemoglobin increases slightly. After 45-50 years in most laboratories, 160 g / l is considered the normal upper limit. By the way, high values - up to 160 g / l - are noted among athletes or women engaged in physical labor. In smokers, hemoglobin may also increase slightly.
What can cause minor deviations from the norm? Of course, minor deviations are acceptable. They can be caused by physical activity, food, environment. By the way, people who refuse meat have lower hemoglobin. Inhaling clean air increases its concentration. Even climate and seasons affect performance. For example, in residents of highlands, hemoglobin levels are elevated. In addition, the onset of autumn and the predominance of seasonal fruits and vegetables in the diet leads to a slight decrease. But what is considered a deviation from the norm and when should the alarm sound?
Causes of Low Hemoglobin
- malnutrition and problems with digestibility of food,
- digestive system diseases
- the death of red blood cells due to impaired blood formation, as well as autoimmune pathologies in which the body’s own cells are destroyed,
- hypothyroidism - due to a lack of thyroid hormones in the body, iron absorption is impaired, which will certainly lead to a hemoglobin deficiency,
- infectious diseases,
- malignant pathologies, especially the digestive tract and blood.
Symptoms of Low Hemoglobin
As a result of anemia, oxygen intake to the tissues of the body is difficult. Trying to maintain balance, the body redistributes resources, limiting the flow to organs and structures that are not vital. First of all, nails, hair, and skin suffer. Pallor, dry skin, lethargy, dull hair and cracks in the corners of the mouth are the first manifestations of reduced hemoglobin. A further decrease leads to a lack of oxygen entering the heart and brain. A person is worried about fatigue, dizziness, low blood pressure and a heartbeat, fainting is not uncommon. In pregnant women, the manifestations are especially bright, first of all, there are disorders of smell and taste, the desire to eat chalk, lime, sand, etc., unusual for the diet. This is not a whim, but an occasion for a visit to the doctor.
How to raise low hemoglobin?
First, you should find out the cause of the ailment, but this can only be done with the help of an examination. After the detection of the underlying disease, a set of measures is selected, which includes:
- Nutrition correction: with food in sufficient quantity, iron should enter the body, the main source of which is meat, liver, spinach, beans, etc. By the way, a diet with meat restriction often causes anemia. In addition, you should limit the use of coffee, chocolate, cereals, which inhibit the absorption of iron.
- Vitamin B12 intake - It is important in the synthesis of hemoglobin. Today, these drugs are available in different dosage forms, and the doctor should choose the dosage.
- Blood loss exclusion, which can be associated not only with a cycle or active donation, there may be hidden bleeding with an ulcer, hemorrhoids, polyps in the intestine.
- Immobility - one of the negative factors affecting the state of health, including blood counts. With insufficient blood circulation due to a sedentary lifestyle, a signal is sent to the brain that the number of red blood cells is sufficient and additional production is not needed at the moment.
In the fight against low hemoglobin, do not self-medicate taking drugs that supposedly helped friends. Almost all iron-containing agents irritate the gastric mucosa, their administration will either aggravate the existing pathology or provoke the development of the disease in a healthy person.
Increased hemoglobin - how to reduce and is it necessary?
The causes of high hemoglobin can be very different. First of all, it is physical activity, dehydration in hot weather and even stay in hypoxia, for example, living in high mountains. However, deviations in blood counts in such cases are insignificant, and specialists are not wary.
Difficulties arise if hemoglobin is elevated for no apparent reason. Of course, the cause will still be discovered during the examination. This can be a heart or respiratory disease, diabetes, intestinal infection, and a malignant tumor. In addition, elevated hemoglobin levels can be caused by the uncontrolled use of certain drugs: diuretics, vitamins, and iron-containing drugs.
Particular caution should be given to increase in hemoglobin concentration to 180 g / l. In this case, blood viscosity increases, microcirculation is disrupted, the flow of oxygen to organs is difficult. The patient becomes distracted, irritability and fatigue appear, appetite decreases, fingertips become cyanotic. The danger is the appearance of plaques and blood clots, which can lead to thromboembolism, heart attack or stroke. Thus, a high level of hemoglobin for a long time is a condition requiring the help of specialists.
How to bring high hemoglobin back to normal
To reduce hemoglobin, first of all, you need to find the reason for its increase, for this you will have to undergo a specialist examination, after which treatment methods will be selected. These include:
- Appointment blood thinners, which reduces the risk of thrombosis. However, the decision to take such funds is made by the doctor after examining the patient. The danger is also represented by vitamins of groups B, C containing iron and folic acid, which are taken uncontrollably.
- Diet therapy - is to restrict foods high in iron: meat, liver, some vegetables and fruits, chicken eggs. You should also exclude products that increase cholesterol from the menu: butter, fastwood, canned foods, convenience foods, etc.
- Specific therapy - It is prescribed by a doctor in accordance with the diagnosed pathology.
Hemoglobin level - how to find out?
On the "eye" to do this is impossible. Of course, there are certain signs that make it possible to suspect trouble, but, unfortunately, a woman often attributes the symptoms to fatigue, a bad mood, etc., postponing a visit to the doctor. In addition, often diseases are asymptomatic at the initial stage, and it is problematic to detect the disease at its very beginning. That is why there are routine examinationsthat should be taken regularly. High or low hemoglobin can be determined using blood test, research can be done in any laboratory.
Hemoglobin blood test
Blood for examination should be taken in the morning on an empty stomach, it is allowed to drink only water. But it should be noted that the result will be inaccurate during menstruation, so it is better to postpone the examination for several days. In addition, you can not donate blood after physiotherapy procedures, ultrasound and x-ray examination, since the results will be distorted. However, a change in hemoglobin concentration can be caused by trauma, eating habits, for example, enthusiasm for vegetarianism, so the doctor should write a referral for examination. The interpretation of the results should also be entrusted to specialists.
How to avoid hemoglobin disturbance - prevention
- The first step to preventing any disease is balanced diet. The menu should contain in sufficient quantities all the substances necessary for the body. The exclusion or excess of a product will inevitably lead to violations. Having decided to adhere to a certain diet, it would be nice to consult a specialist, since there are products that increase hemoglobin, and those that interfere with the absorption of iron: in this case, you should not count on the effect of diet therapy. In addition, it is extremely important to observe the drinking regimen, especially on hot days or during physical activity. A healthy person should drink at least two liters of fluid per day, if there are no contraindications for this.
- Vitamins and Supplements - take them better after consulting a doctor. In addition, you can take as much as you like taking hemoglobin enhancing agents, but to no avail if they are not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract in the proper way, which is possible with diseases of the stomach.
- Active lifestyle - An equally important aspect in the prevention of the disease. Inactivity is the cause of many diseases, including anemia. Exhausting workouts, daily walking, cycling, swimming are not required at all - there are many options!
Any ailment is an occasion to visit a doctor. Weakness, drowsiness, pallor or yellowness of the skin, dull hair and broken nails, changes in taste or eating habits, cracks in the corners of the mouth, shiny and scarlet tongue, badly healing scratches - these and other signs are a signal of ill-being. A symptom of a dangerous disease or a consequence of malnutrition - whatever the reason for the change in hemoglobin level, it is better to start with a medical consultation!
Oksana Matias, general practitioner
What is hemoglobin?
Human blood contains red blood cells - red blood cells, which are responsible for transporting oxygen to the organs and tissues of the body. At their core is an iron-containing protein called hemoglobin. Inside it there are iron ions, which, when combined with oxygen, make the blood red. The main functions performed by this blood component:
- strengthening immunity through participation in immune defense reactions,
- removal of peroxidation products, toxins,
- maintaining the normal functioning of the thyroid gland, brain,
- acceleration of the growth of new neurons,
- holding a nerve impulse.
How the norm of hemoglobin in the blood changes in women with age
The amount of hemoglobin can be determined using a clinical (general) blood test. This indicator depends on the individual characteristics of the female body, age-related changes, lifestyle. For example, women - professional athletes can have hemoglobin figures - 140-160 g / l, with weak immunity against a background of chronic diseases, harmful working conditions - about 150 g / l, etc. Normal hemoglobin levels of different age periods of a woman (table):
The amount of hemoglobin (g / l)
What should be the level of hemoglobin in women after 40
This indicator with the age of a woman is constantly changing due to hormonal changes in the body. The average is as follows:
- The norm of hemoglobin in a woman after 40 years is 120-140 g / l. This age is accompanied by a lack of B vitamins (especially B9 and B12), which can affect laboratory blood counts.
- The norm of hemoglobin in women after 50 years is 117-139 g / l. This time of menopause is accompanied by: an unstable hormonal background, periodic severe uterine bleeding (menstruation), acute sensitivity to stress.
- After 60 years - 110-133 g / l. The general condition of the woman is stabilized, the period of postmenopause begins.
- After 75 years - 110-159 g / l. Sharp fluctuations of this indicator in older women threaten health and life, urgent consultation and examination of a doctor is required.
Critical hemoglobin level: what level is considered fatal
In determining the cause of many diseases, the main indicator is hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein responsible for providing tissues with oxygen. An insufficient amount indicates hidden bleeding, oncology, hematopoiesis, affects well-being, vitality and appetite. If his level reaches a critical minimum, a person dies from complications and severe anemia.
Reasons for deviations
Hemoglobin rates in women after 40 years are very variable. In connection with certain circumstances, its amount may decrease or increase to a maximum level. The reasons for lowering this blood component include:
- change in metabolic processes,
- hormonal disbalance,
- taking certain medications for a long time,
- malnutrition of foods rich in iron,
- long and frequent diets, fasting,
- pregnancy, early gestosis (toxicosis),
- prolonged uterine bleeding (especially after childbirth),
- lactation (lactation),
- frequent stresses
- alcohol intake, smoking,
- high physical activity.
In women, the causes of high hemoglobin in the blood can be:
- respiratory failure, hypoxemia due to COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and other lung diseases,
- diabetes mellitus (excess glucose),
- dehydration of the body (with burns),
- diseases of the hematopoietic system (polycythemia, erythrocytosis),
- malignant bone marrow diseases,
- chronic heart failure on the background of congenital heart disease, hypertension,
- chronic bowel obstruction,
- malignant neoplasms in the kidneys or liver,
- renal failure
- difficulty urinating
- long-term treatment with certain drugs (diuretics, erythropoietin),
- hormonal disorders
Symptoms of Low Hemoglobin Levels
The clinical signs of anemia in humans are similar to many diseases of the body. The main manifestations of this pathological condition:
- decreased performance
- fast fatiguability,
- frequent migraine
- dyspnea alone
- pallor and dryness of the skin,
- chest pains in the heart,
- dull and split hair prone to loss,
- constant thirst
- noise in ears,
- dry and brittle nails
- the appearance of caries on the teeth,
- yellowing of tooth enamel,
- sleep disturbance,
- discoloration of the tongue (it becomes bright red).
An increase in hemoglobin is similar to the clinical manifestations of hepatitis. The main symptoms of hyperhemoglobinemia include:
- decreased appetite and performance,
- pallor and itching of the skin,
- yellowish tinge of the oral mucosa,
- hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen),
- shortness of breath, respiratory failure,
- regular headaches
- weight loss
- malfunction of the heart (atrial fibrillation),
- blue fingertips due to microcirculation disorders,
- irritability, lethargy, apathy,
- decreased attentiveness
- joint, abdominal pains,
If you do not take measures and do not heal on time, then a prolonged deviation from the norm of hemoglobin in women after 40 years can end in serious consequences. These complications include the following symptoms:
- reduced immunity
- increased risk of viral infections,
- low concentration of attention,
- regular fainting
- urinary incontinence,
- disruption of the nervous system,
- digestive tract diseases (dysbiosis),
- drop in blood pressure
- hypo-or hyperthermia,
- pale with a yellowish tint skin,
- bluish-colored eyeball proteins,
- during pregnancy, fetal growth retardation,
- hepatosplenomegaly, kidney enlargement,
- decreased brain activity, the patient cannot study normally, concentration of attention suffers, mental processes are difficult,
- impaired blood circulation due to an increase in blood viscosity, the blood flow rate decreases, while there is a high risk of developing a heart attack or stroke,
- problems with the genitourinary system (decreased potency in men).
Treatment for abnormal hemoglobin levels
The treatment regimen for deviations from the norm depends on the severity of the patient's pathological condition. The basic rules of treatment:
- proper balanced nutrition
- decrease in physical activity,
- mode of work and rest,
- selection of medications by a doctor,
- blood counts every 14 days of treatment,
- in severe allergic reactions to taking the drug, it is recommended to replace it with another drug.
The rate of hemoglobin in women after 40 years can be maintained by using a balanced diet. To increase the amount of this substance, it is necessary to consume a lot of iron-containing products. They are divided into vegetable:
- green apples
- berries (cranberries, strawberries, raspberries),
- apricots, plums,
- citruses (grapefruit, orange, lemon),
- pumpkin and its seeds,
- legumes, soybeans,
- natural cocoa
- parsley, dill and other herbs.
Products containing a lot of iron of animal origin:
- liver (especially beef)
- veal kidneys,
- meat (lamb, beef),
- sea fish (sardines, tuna species, red perch),
- Red caviar,
- egg yolk.
It is proved that iron from animal products is absorbed 20% better than from plant. Nutritionists make a diet so that every day a person eats meat, eggs and at least several times a week - fish dishes. Eating plant-based foods regularly is necessary because they are rich in vitamins, fiber, which improves absorption and helps the absorption of other “heavy” foods.
Some spices and herbs are also rich in iron (cinnamon, anise, thyme, mint leaves, ginseng). If its deficiency in the body is not critical, then using proper nutrition, you can restore the normal amount of hemoglobin without taking medication. This correction method is longer and the effect is slower, but it does not give adverse reactions that arise from taking medications (nausea, decreased appetite, bloating, diarrhea, or constipation).
With a high level of hemoglobin from the diet, you need to remove foods with iron content, drink a large amount of pure water without gas, increase the use of products that suppress the absorption of this element:
- whole milk and other dairy products (calcium reduces iron absorption),
- chicken egg protein inhibits the absorption of iron into the walls of the stomach,
- cereals, pasta and bakery products (phytins in their composition reduce iron production),
- coffee, tea, chocolate (tannic components reduce iron synthesis).
The norm of hemoglobin in women after 40 is restored for a very long time without the use of drugs. If the correct balanced diet has not led to the desired result, then the doctor prescribes iron-containing drugs. They are able to normalize the level of this blood component in 10-14 days.
Allocate drugs in different forms and dosages. Special safe medicines have been developed for children and pregnant women. The most common medications to increase hemoglobin include:
- Actiferrin - capsules, solution,
- Venofer, Monofer, Dextrafer, Cosmophore, Farmed - injection,
- Ferry - syrup for children from 0 years old and pregnant,
- Iron gluconate - tablets and drops,
- Irovit, Ferro-Folgamma (contain folic and ascorbic acids, B vitamins) - capsules,
- Maltofer - tablets, syrup,
- Ferrogradumet - tablets,
- Ferlatum fol - oral solution,
- Siderol - capsules,
- Sorbifer Durules, Kheferol - special tablets for pregnant women with therapeutic and prophylactic purposes.
All iron-containing preparations restore normal levels of hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes and act as a catalyst for oxidative reactions, metabolic processes. Iron is absorbed in the stomach or intestines. Medicines should be prescribed by a qualified specialist and used strictly according to the instructions for use. The duration of treatment and the frequency of administration depend on the degree of deviation of the hemoglobin level from normal values. In case of an overdose of drugs, gastric lavage is necessary.
With an increase in hemoglobin, blood counts are severely affected. Doctors prescribe drugs that thin the blood. Such agents include antiplatelet agents that have an antithrombotic effect. The list of such medicines can include:
In addition to these drugs, hepatoprotective drugs are prescribed along with zinc, calcium, phosphorus and manganese. In severe cases, erythrophoresis is indicated - the removal of excess red blood cells from the blood. During the course of treatment, it is necessary to abandon the use of alcohol and smoking, to limit physical activity. This procedure should be carried out under the supervision of a physician.
An effective way to correct hemoglobin levels are traditional medicine. Infusions and decoctions from herbs can be used both auxiliary and main treatment (if not a critical level of decrease in this component of blood). When lowering, it is recommended:
- Nettle infusion. It is necessary to mix a handful of herb leaves with 400 ml of boiling water. Allow the mixture to infuse in a thermos for a day, then strain. Drink half a glass three times with food.
- Rosehip infusion. It is necessary to grind 2 handfuls of plant fruits and mix them with one liter of clean warm water. Leave on for 10 hours, then strain. Infusion to drink half a glass twice a day before meals.
- Strawberry infusion. Cut 2 tablespoons of fruit and mix with 500 ml of pure water. Cover the resulting mixture, leave for 8 hours, then strain and drink 200 ml three times a day after meals.
- A mixture of nuts and honey. Add two tablespoons of honey to a handful of fruits. Use the resulting mass at least twice a day for one teaspoon. A natural normalization of hemoglobin levels occurs.
With hyperhemoglobinemia, the following mixtures and infusions are recommended:
- Fruit salad of grapes, apricot, banana with natural yogurt. You need to use this dish every day for breakfast or afternoon tea.
- Infusion of fireweed. In a thermos mix 1 tbsp. this plant and 0.5 liters. boiling water, leave to infuse for 10 hours, then strain and drink half a glass twice a day.
- Water with lemon. It is necessary to add 4 tablespoons of freshly squeezed lemon juice in one liter of water.Stir and drink a glass several times a day.
- Infusion of rose hips, mistletoe, Veronica, chamomile. It is necessary to mix all components in equal proportions. Then 2 teaspoons of the mixture should be filled in a glass of boiling water. After half an hour, strain the infusion and drink half a glass twice a day.
Preventive measures aimed at treating the disease and normalizing hemoglobin levels:
- Healthy food,
- exclude diet, fasting,
- with endocrine pathology (diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism), monitor blood counts,
- for anemia: you need food with a lot of iron (liver, seafood, legumes, vegetables, fruits),
- with hyperhemoglobinemia: eat nuts, whole grains, drink more fluids (compotes, herbal infusions, strong tea and coffee),
- regularly undergo medical examination for the early detection of any abnormalities (normal hemoglobin in a woman should be 120-140 g / l)
Is excess dangerous
With some pathologies, the body begins to intensively produce hemoglobin. With a significant excess of the norm, a change in the blood composition occurs, the risk of blood clots increases. This is fraught with blockage of the veins, impaired blood circulation in the limbs, often becomes the cause of cardiac ischemia or stroke of the brain. Possible causes include:
- thyroid pathology,
- intestinal obstruction.
For women, a hemoglobin level of more than 150 g / l is considered dangerous. Violation can be suspected by characteristic symptoms: high blood pressure, pale skin on the tips of the fingers, frequent urination, joint pain.
Iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy
When carrying a child in a woman’s body, hormonal changes occur, and the total blood volume increases. Doctors calculated what hemoglobin level is considered critical for the expectant mother:
- mild anemia with an indicator of 90 to 110 g / l,
- average at the level of 80–90 g / l,
- heavy - below 80 g / l.
At risk are women with multiple pregnancies, patients with severe toxicosis or kidney disease. The interval between previous births and conception of less than 2 years increases the risk of anemia.
The main danger of critically low hemoglobin during pregnancy is a violation of the development of the embryo. The brain and nervous system of the child experience oxygen starvation, a lack of nutrients. There is a risk of congenital abnormalities and abnormalities, cerebral palsy. Therefore, gynecologists do not recommend giving up routine tests, offer vitamin complexes, and prohibit strict diets without need.
Deviations from the norm in men
In representatives of the stronger sex, critical hemoglobin in the blood begins with an indicator of 70 g / l. To maintain health and well-being, a man needs to keep him at a level of 130 g / l. Deviation from the norm is possible in several situations:
- accommodation in the mountains,
- chronic diseases
- heavy physical labor
- taking steroids in sports.
Violations of the indicator are sometimes diagnosed when working in contaminated conditions, constant contact with chemicals or dyes. In men, after 50 years of age, hemoglobin decreases due to a decrease in metabolism, a decreased production of red blood cells due to the aging of the body.
According to the observations of doctors, in some men over 30 years of age, hemoglobin sharply falls during sleep. After waking up within 1-2 hours, he returns to normal, but this fact must be taken into account when collecting analyzes.
Low hemoglobin in childhood
A critical level of hemoglobin in the blood of a child is often diagnosed in puberty. At 11–13 years of age, active restructuring begins and sharp jumps in hormones affecting the basic life processes.The second reason is the teenager’s malnutrition: it is difficult for parents to control school snacks and lunches, children use fast food and snacks excessively, and refuse soups and vegetables.
The first blood test for hemoglobin level is done to the baby after birth. Doctors try to control the indicator to prevent oxygen starvation of organs and systems. Normally, it is 150-190 g / l in the first 2 weeks, rapidly decreases to the parameters of an adult. Anemia in babies occurs for the following reasons:
- congenital pathologies of the hematopoietic system,
- untimely introduction of complementary foods,
- vegetarian diet at the request of the parents,
- maternal anemia during pregnancy.
In the future, doctors recommend taking blood tests annually to monitor hemoglobin levels as the child grows. Its fall may indicate hemophilia, lack of vitamins, allergies or helminthic infestations.
What level is considered deadly
Experts believe that the deadly level of hemoglobin for an adult is an indicator below 70 g / l. In fact, the patient dies not from a lack of protein, but from the development of complications due to oxygen starvation:
- metabolic disease,
- drop in immune defense,
- exacerbation of chronic diseases of the kidneys, liver, intestinal tract,
- severe arrhythmia or tachycardia.
In acute and massive blood loss, a drop in hemoglobin below 38 g / l, the patient dies from brain hypoxia. But with a slow decrease in iron-containing protein, symptoms appear gradually, the body adapts to the changes. Therefore, in medical practice there are many cases when a person with anemia at the level of 40-50 g / l works productively and leads a relatively active lifestyle. This is due to the individual characteristics of the patient's cardiovascular and nervous system, his age and health.
The rate of hemoglobin in the blood
What is the normal hemoglobin content in the blood? The fact is that this indicator is quite dynamic and depends on age, gender and even lifestyle.
The norm of hemoglobin in the blood for men is 130-160 g / l, for women - 120-150 g / l. Moreover, this value changes with age. In the first days after birth, the hemoglobin level reaches 198 g / l, while in the second month of life, the indicator decreases to 94 g / l. From this age to the age of 12, the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood of a child gradually rises, reaching an adult norm. After 45 years, the rate of hemoglobin in the blood begins to gradually increase. In people older than 65, we are talking about 117–161 g / l and 126–174 g / l in women and men, respectively.
During pregnancy and lactation, the resources of the female body are directed to the development of the fetus first, and then the baby. Therefore, a reduced hemoglobin content is normal during this period. Of course, within reasonable limits.
An increase in hemoglobin in the blood is also not always a sign of pathological processes in the body. For example, in professional athletes and climbers, increased hemoglobin in the blood is, in a sense, the norm.
Increased hemoglobin in the blood
In the absence of serious physical exertion, a high level of hemoglobin indicates the presence of diseases, such as diabetes or the development of tumors. In addition, the condition is a threat in itself. Blood becomes thicker, which means an increased risk of blood clots. This can lead to a heart attack or stroke. To reduce risks, in addition to the main therapy, doctors recommend excluding red meat and other foods rich in iron and fats from the diet.
In addition to the diet, with stable elevated levels of hemoglobin in the blood, blood thinners can be prescribed, as well as the procedure of erythrocytapheresis - partial purification of blood from red blood cells.
Lowered hemoglobin in the blood
Conditions when hemoglobin in the blood is lowered is much more common. The most common cause is a lack of iron in the body. According to the WHO, iron deficiency affects more than 30% of the world's population. It provokes the condition primarily unbalanced diet, poor in iron and vitamins B9 and B12 necessary for its absorption. Reduced hemoglobin can also be the result of blood loss, infectious and autoimmune diseases.
The condition when the hemoglobin content in the blood falls is called anemia. Its severity is determined by the severity of the decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the patient’s blood. Mild anemia often goes away against the background of no symptoms and is accompanied by indicators of 90-110 g / l. A further decrease in blood hemoglobin content (70–90 g / l), as a rule, leads to a deterioration in well-being. Weakness develops, the concentration of attention decreases, the person looks pale and tired. In this case, we are talking about moderate anemia. When the hemoglobin concentration is below 70 g / l, a diagnosis of severe anemia is made. Among other things, she is characterized by fragility of nails, “seizures” in the corners of her lips, and a decrease in immunity.
Treatment of iron deficiency anemia involves the elimination of the disease that led to its development, as well as compensation for iron loss with the help of drugs and lifestyle changes. The patient should more often be in the fresh air, lead as active an lifestyle as possible and review the diet. It is preferable to eat foods rich in iron, such as meat, liver and fish. It is better to refuse dairy products during the main meals. The protein casein contained in them binds iron, as a result of which it is not absorbed. Both vitamin complexes and inclusion of legumes, bran, green onions and cabbage in the diet will help to increase the intake of vitamins B and C in the body, which contribute to the absorption of iron.
In severe forms of anemia, medications must be taken. The course of treatment lasts several months.
So, the level of hemoglobin in the blood - both adults and children - it is important to keep under control. You should not sound the alarm if you find a deviation from the norm, perhaps this is a temporary change caused, for example, by stress. However, for any, especially long-term, changes in this indicator, you should consult a doctor for comments. Most likely, with a slight increase in the level of hemoglobin, your doctor will advise you to adjust the diet, and with a small drop in the concentration, in addition to the “iron-rich” diet, take prophylactic drugs, for example, biologically active food additives (BAA) or vitamin and mineral complexes.
Hemoglobin rates in adults
Hemoglobin rates in adults are certain indicators of the concentration of a given protein in the blood that are acceptable for the healthy functioning of the body. Imbalance leads not only to poor health, but also to the development of serious pathological processes, some of which may be irreversible.
The cause of the deviation from the norm in a woman or a man by age may be the presence of certain diseases, including chronic ones, or poor nutrition, the presence of bad habits. It is much easier to prevent an unacceptable level of hemoglobin in a person’s blood than to eliminate the consequences of such a violation.
It should be noted that the normal level of hemoglobin will differ depending on the age of the person and his current condition. So, the norm of hemoglobin in the blood in women during child bearing will be lower than in a non-pregnant woman, since it is natural for them that hemoglobin is lower than the norm established for everyone.
In general, the following values are optimal indicators:
- the norm of hemoglobin in the blood in men is 130-170 g / l,
- the norm for women is 120-150 g / l.
In children, indicators stabilize by 18 years. It should also be noted that the norm of hemoglobin in women after 50 years, as in men, will be slightly lower, which is a completely natural physiological process for advanced age.
At the same time, it should be noted that at any age, a deviation from 5 units is considered normal, and rarely indicates the development of a certain pathological process, however, such indicators are the norm of hemoglobin in women after 40 years.
A reduced concentration of protein in the blood may be due to the following etiological factors and pathologies:
- the presence of systemic and autoimmune diseases,
- bleeding and extensive burns,
- debilitating diets that are not justified by medical indicators,
- helminthic infestations,
- lack of B vitamins,
- It should be noted that the hemoglobin norm is not observed in men or women with viral diseases, but as the body recovers from the pathological process, the indicators stabilize.
- Separately, it should be said about the clinical picture - it is similar to lower or higher indicators, but only a doctor can determine exactly whether the indicators are normal or not by conducting diagnostic measures.
- The clinical picture with a reduced amount of protein in the blood is characterized as follows:
- growing weakness - a person feels tired, short of breath even after a leisurely and short walk,
- frequent headaches, dizziness,
- general deterioration of well-being,
- pallor of the skin,
- brittle hair and nails, dry skin and mucous membranes,
- the tongue turns bright red
- low blood pressure
- disturbance of the sleep cycle, frequent insomnia,
- frequent fainting
- irritability, sudden mood swings, decreased performance.
Due to the fact that a similar clinical picture may be present in other diseases, and not because hemoglobin in men or women is lowered, it is strongly not recommended to conduct independent therapeutic measures. This can lead to extremely negative consequences. Death is not excluded.
It should be noted that hemoglobin above the norm is diagnosed much less frequently than lowered, but no less dangerous for human health.
The reason for this violation may be the following:
- extreme sports or work at height,
- accommodation in the mountains,
- smoking, alcohol abuse,
- cardiovascular diseases,
- extensive blood transfusions,
- oncological processes in the body,
- hormonal disorders,
- disorders in the gastrointestinal tract,
- deficiency of vitamin B and folic acid,
- adherence to an unjustified diet.
An increased concentration of this protein in the body of women or men by age leads to the fact that the blood becomes more viscous, which is a significant increase in the risk of thrombosis. Therefore, this factor should always be kept under control, and for this there is a table - hemoglobin, the norm in women by age.
The clinical picture of the increased indicator will be characterized as follows:
- impaired appetite or lack thereof,
- headaches, frequent fainting conditions,
- pallor of the skin or, conversely, redness,
- drowsiness, even if a person rests fully and comfortably,
- high blood pressure.
Such concentration indicators are not the norm in men or women of any age. Moreover, the presence of such a pathological process significantly increases the risk of stroke, heart attack and other diseases with a similar etiology.
Symptoms of high and low hemoglobin
Blood sampling for determining hemoglobin concentration indicators is carried out only in the morning, on an empty stomach. If this is not possible, then at another time of the day, but not earlier than an hour after eating.
Blood sampling for research is carried out from a finger. Only a doctor can determine whether hemoglobin in the blood is normal or not. It is impossible to independently compare indicators and conduct treatment, as this can lead to extremely negative consequences.
If deviations from the norm are not critical, then they can be stabilized with the help of nutrition and day regimen correction.
So, with a low concentration of protein in the blood, it is recommended to include the following products in the diet:
- red meat
- pomegranates, peaches, apples and grapes,
- pork and veal liver,
- fresh juices,
- dried fruits mixed with honey
- grated carrots with cream,
- red vegetables and berries.
Only a doctor prescribes medications.
With an increased amount of protein in the blood, some adjustments should be made:
- reduce the amount of foods that are rich in iron,
- observe the optimal drinking regimen - at least 2.5 liters of water per day,
- spend enough time in the air.
As for drug treatment, only the attending physician can also prescribe it. In this case, it is a hematologist and doctors of related specialization, depending on the current symptoms and complications.
As a preventive measure, it is advisable to adhere to a healthy lifestyle, treat all diseases in a timely manner, eliminate stress and severe nervous strain. If you feel unwell, you should seek medical help, and not conduct self-diagnosis and self-medication.
Hemoglobin: norm, danger of low and high content
Without oxygen, a person can live very little, and his lack significantly affects the health and condition of the human body. Therefore, one of the most important elements of our body is hemoglobin. It is he who performs the function so necessary for us - he delivers oxygen to all tissues and cells.
Why are hemoglobin levels lower in women than in men
Normally, the hemoglobin content in the blood in men is slightly higher than in women. This is due to several factors - a low level of male sex hormones (primarily testosterone), which have a stimulating effect on blood formation, and monthly blood loss during menstruation.
The hemoglobin level is a variable value. It changes depending on age, habits and lifestyle, health status. In infants in the first days of life, the level of hemoglobin is very high, but it decreases rapidly before the age of one year. After a year to 18–20 years, the hemoglobin level gradually increases. During pregnancy and after 70–75 years, hemoglobin may decrease slightly, and this is normal.
It is impossible to determine “by eye” the hemoglobin level. Of course, there are certain signs that make it possible to suspect an increased and decreased concentration of hemoglobin in women (we will talk about them later), but only a blood test can give accurate information. For analysis, a capillary or venous blood sample is taken.
Blood is donated to hemoglobin in the morning, on an empty stomach, in a calm and relaxed state (physical and emotional stresses affect the content of this protein in the blood). The day before the analysis, you should not visit a bath or sauna, take a hot bath, conduct sports training, eat fatty or spicy foods, take x-rays and undergo physiotherapy of any kind. An hour before analysis, you should not smoke, drink coffee or tea.
Causes of high hemoglobin in women
You can talk about high hemoglobin when its amount is 20-30 g / l higher than the upper limit of the norm, although this situation is in most cases not yet considered dangerous.If the content of this protein is 180-190 g / l, then we are already talking about a serious violation.
Such a high hemoglobin in women leads to the fact that the blood becomes thicker, moves more slowly and supplies cells with oxygen worse. If no measures are taken, the situation can lead to blood clots in the vessels and other dangerous consequences. High hemoglobin is characteristic for a number of diseases, in particular, diabetes mellitus, intestinal obstruction, some heart and lung diseases. Hemoglobin also increases with burns and dehydration, but in this case, its level is restored after healing or the intake of a sufficient amount of fluid in the body.
Indirect signs of increased hemoglobin are decreased performance, impaired memory, vision and concentration, cold and blue fingertips on the hands and feet, drowsiness, irritability and loss of appetite. If you are familiar with all of these symptoms, do not delay going to the GP or GP.
How to reduce the level to normal
High hemoglobin in women is almost always a sign of a disease, so you need to start with the identification and treatment of the underlying disease. However, there is also symptomatic therapy designed to lower hemoglobin levels.
Diet. With high hemoglobin, foods rich in iron should be avoided - these include red meat, liver and other offal, apples, pears, blackcurrant, beets, eggs, cottage cheese. Meat should be replaced with beans or tofu.
Medications. With high hemoglobin, blood thinners are prescribed - antiplatelet agents. These medicines reduce the risk of blood clots. But they cannot be taken uncontrollably - high hemoglobin can be caused by a disease in which such medications are strictly contraindicated.
Degree of low hemoglobin in the blood
Low levels of hemoglobin in the blood are more common in women than high. This condition is called anemia. There are several degrees of anemia:
- Mild - hemoglobin level drops to 90 g / l. Mild anemia is often diagnosed by chance during a blood test, as the symptoms at this stage are mild. Sometimes patients complain of weakness and fatigue, loss of appetite, sweating.
- Medium - hemoglobin level is 70–90 g / l. In addition to signs characteristic of a mild degree, patients note frequent dizziness. The skin becomes dry and rough, cracks and ulcers appear in the corners of the lips, digestion problems (accumulation of gas, constipation, diarrhea) and tachycardia begin.
- Severe - hemoglobin level of 70 g / l and below. To all the above symptoms, fainting and severe dizziness are added, which are accompanied by flickering flies in front of the eyes, anorexia, and cessation of menstruation. Skin with severe anemia becomes pale, hair and nails become brittle and dull. Numbness of the extremities is characteristic, arms and legs freeze all the time, stomatitis develops, teeth begin to decay. A person gets tired even after the most insignificant loads, for example, climbing stairs may require a full half-hour rest.
Methods for the prevention and treatment of anemia of various degrees
The first step in the treatment of anemia is the diagnosis and treatment of the disease that caused this condition. In parallel with the course of therapy, symptomatic treatment is necessary.
Diet. With a low hemoglobin level, it is recommended to eat more red meat and offal, eggs, dried fruits (figs, raisins, prunes and dried apricots are especially useful), beans and buckwheat dishes, green apples, green leafy vegetables such as spinach and arugula. Of the drinks, apple and pomegranate juices, rosehip broth are preferred, and coffee and tea should be completely abandoned.
Vitamin therapy and supplementation. Often, just changing the diet is not enough, you need to take iron supplements in combination with vitamin C and folic acid. As a prophylactic, hematogen is indicated - an iris-like sweet tile with a high content of iron and albumin. Hematogen can replace chocolate, which is contraindicated in anemia. However, before taking such funds, you need to consult a doctor.
Hemoglobin level is one of the most important indicators of health, and you need to monitor it by regularly donating blood for analysis. This applies to everyone, but it is especially important to control the concentration of hemoglobin in expectant mothers and women in their age.
Tips for increasing hemoglobin with minor anemia
“A slight decrease in hemoglobin and mild anemia are very common,” says an expert at Pharmstandard. - As a rule, this is a non-hazardous condition, but it is impossible to ignore the decrease in hemoglobin. A diet rich in iron-containing foods is the easiest way to increase hemoglobin levels. However, it can be difficult for people to change eating habits, and lifestyle does not always allow you to adhere to a perfectly balanced diet. In such cases, the doctor may recommend taking hematogen, a time-tested remedy for maintaining hemoglobin levels. In this case, you need to choose the hematogen correctly. Some brands produce under this name a product that does not bring any benefit - they even register as a confectionery product, and not as a dietary supplement. In such sweet tiles add nuts, chocolate, flavors and candied fruits, without worrying about the content of iron and vitamins.
Try Ferrohematogen - a dietary supplement with a high content of iron and vitamins necessary for its absorption. "Ferrohematogen" is additionally enriched with vitamins C and B12, folic acid and copper. It has no extraneous additives, it is a healthy product suitable for proper nutrition, an excellent source of iron and, finally, a delicious treat. ”
How to increase?
To increase the level of hemoglobin in the body, you must enter in your diet foods that are high in iron. These products include:
- lean meats
- beef liver,
- various cereals, especially buckwheat,
- any freshly squeezed juices, especially pomegranate,
- eggs and dairy products.
Those who suffer from low hemoglobin levels are strongly advised to drink as little tea and coffee as possible. This is explained by the fact that these drinks contribute to the washing out of the body of many useful substances, including iron.
With a medical increase in hemoglobin, care should be taken. Since most drugs prescribed for anemic patients cause unpleasant side effects from the gastrointestinal tract, such as diarrhea, constipation, nausea, or heartburn.
It should also be noted that with a very low hemoglobin level, an iron-boosting diet can only be an addition to the medication that your doctor will prescribe for you. Relying solely on the miraculous properties of food in this case is not worth it. Especially when it comes to children or pregnant women.
How to lower?
In order to lower the level of hemoglobin in the blood, experts advise the following:
- drink more water. If the hemoglobin level has risen due to dehydration, then when restoring the water balance, everything should return to normal,
- unlike cases with reduced hemoglobin, tea is absolutely not prohibited when this indicator is increased,
- reduce the consumption of red meat and offal containing a large amount of iron,
- eat as little fish and seafood as possible. This is especially true of red varieties of fish, as well as dried fish and seafood. Therefore, lovers of dried fish or squid should moderate their passion for such foods,
- the basis of your diet should be cereals. They are good for both increasing hemoglobin level and lowering it,
- consume more vegetable proteins. They are found in soy and bean,
- consume more vegetables (even thermally processed) and fruits,
- exclude juices and carbonated drinks from the diet. Juices contain a large amount of iron, and carbonated drinks are saturated with carbon dioxide. And as mentioned above, an excess of carbon dioxide (which, in fact, is the lack of oxygen) is a direct signal to increase the level of hemoglobin,
- try not to eat sugar and sweets. These products contribute to the absorption of iron, and, consequently, increase its concentration in the body,
- stop drinking alcohol. Because ethyl alcohol, combining with iron, forms substances that adversely affect the liver. And alcohol breakdown products stimulate blood production. Therefore, doctors noticed that regularly drinking people have a higher hemoglobin level,
- try not to eat red berries, vegetables and fruits. Because they contain a large number of substances that cause an increase in hemoglobin in the blood.
In conclusion, we can say that a low level of hemoglobin, as well as a high one, carries a certain danger for a person. Actually, like any deviation from the norm. Before you begin to self-medicate and try to increase or decrease hemoglobin on your own, you should undergo an appropriate examination. After all, a deviation of this indicator from the norm, especially upward, may be a consequence of certain diseases of the internal organs.
Be sure to seek the advice of your doctor. It is he who will be able to competently and accurately determine what exactly is the cause of this pathology specifically in your case.
Indeed, behind a not very serious, at first glance, deviation in the body, much more serious problems can be hidden.
A high or low level of hemoglobin simply serves as a kind of "litmus test", an indicator of problems in our body.
Take due care of your health and the health of your near and dear ones!
The norm of hemoglobin in men
The level of hemoglobin in the blood in men is a variable indicator, its norm can undergo changes.
The level of protein depends on many factors, it is affected by the age of the man, his race, lifestyle and nutrition. For this reason, doctors have a certain range of indicators, a deviation from it and is perceived as a deviation from the norm.
Any deviation from the norm, an increase or decrease in the hemoglobin content in plasma leads to various health problems. May cause disease or pathological condition. erythrocyte protein in plasma depends on several factors, but the increase or decrease can vary in a certain range.
Minor deviations are not considered a pathology, with age, the plasma protein level decreases, and its norm undergoes certain, but not cardinal changes.
Symptoms of Low Hemoglobin Levels
The main reasons for the development of iron deficiency anemia include the following:
- the formation of tumor neoplasms,
- diseases caused by parasites
- disruption of the thyroid gland,
- digestive tract pathology,
- heavy blood loss (bleeding, donation),
- systemic blood diseases
- strict diets, “drying”, vegetarianism,
- excessive consumption of chocolate and caffeinated drinks,
- alcohol intoxication.
Decreased hemoglobin in men is a less common phenomenon than in women. Lack of iron-containing protein in the body, which is responsible for the transport of oxygen, is accompanied by general malaise. The patient is worried about weakness, headaches, and palpitations.In men, the skin turns pale, working capacity decreases.
How to raise hemoglobin?
With a reduced amount of iron in the blood, a screening should also be done to help establish the cause of anemia. Most often, this condition can be dealt with using a diet that includes more foods that contain a lot of iron and other essential minerals. Usually advised to eat more meat, cereals, legumes, nuts.
If the lack of iron is too large, it will be extremely difficult to cope with one diet. In this case, you need to take special medications against anemia that contain iron.
In addition, vitamins B and C are usually prescribed. Vitamin C is necessary so that these drugs are absorbed better, it improves blood quality.
At the same time, during treatment, it is advised to avoid dairy products, since on the contrary they contribute to insufficient assimilation of the necessary substances.
In addition, it is generally generally advised to switch to a healthy lifestyle. With anemia, it is advised to spend more time in the fresh air, to choose a suitable type of physical activity. The lack of exercise adversely affects the work of the heart and blood vessels, the body as a whole.
You should not treat anemia or increased hemoglobin on your own, this can lead to serious consequences. It is imperative to identify the cause of this condition before starting treatment, otherwise you can harm and provoke a deterioration in well-being.
Symptoms of High Hemoglobin Levels
The main causes of high hemoglobin in men:
- systemic diseases of the heart, kidneys, bladder,
- severe dehydration,
- constant stress, nervous strain,
- damage to the skin (burns, wounds),
- gastrointestinal tract disease,
- oncological pathologies,
- hypovitaminosis (excessive content of B vitamins),
- intoxication, poisoning with toxic substances, drugs, etc.
A slight increase in this blood element may be normal, for example, for pilots, athletes or residents of high altitude regions. People from these categories feel quite normal with their indicators. But if the protein content increases in an ordinary person, he feels a deterioration.
How to lower hemoglobin?
In order to lower the level of hemoglobin in the bloodstream, it is necessary to eliminate the factors that increase it, and only then prescribe the optimal treatment method.
To reduce blood viscosity, you can take medications:
With increased blood viscosity, it is also necessary to adhere to certain dietary recommendations and include in the diet:
- Porridge, namely rice and buckwheat,
- Herbal teas
- Freshly squeezed juices
- Whole wheat bread.
You should not expect instant results when even all the recommendations described are fulfilled, since the stabilization of the hemoglobin level will take place in stages. Lowering blood viscosity should take place exclusively under the supervision of medical personnel.
Possible consequences for deviations from the norm
An elevated hemoglobin level is dangerous because it can cause pathological conditions in the body:
- Increased blood viscosity.
- Delay in growth and development in adolescents.
- Poor general health.
- Blood clots.
- Change in blood composition.
Reduced hemoglobin concentration is also not the norm, therefore, it is possible:
- Weakness and malaise.
- Distortion of taste and smell.
- Dry mouth.
Regardless of whether hemoglobin is lowered or too much higher than normal, specialist consultation and a change in your daily diet are necessary.
There are hemoglobin standards in a blood test. Moreover, the value of this indicator is different for men, women, children and depends on age.
Hemoglobin content standards for girls and women in g / l:
- the first week of life is 145–215,
- one month - 100-180,
- 3–6 months - 90–135,
- up to two years - 105–145,
- up to six years - 100–140,
- up to 12 years old - 115–145,
- under 16 years old - 115–155,
- up to 20 years old - 110–147,
- up to 30 years old - 110–150,
- up to 40 years old - 112–152,
- up to 50 years old - 112–152,
- up to 60 years old - 114–152,
- up to 70 years old - 114–155.
Hemoglobin levels for men and boys:
- the first week of life is 135–225,
- one month - 100-180,
- 3–6 months - 95–140,
- up to two years - 110–145,
- up to six years - 105–145,
- up to 12 years old - 112–148,
- up to 16 years old - 120–165,
- under 20 years old - 122–170,
- up to 30 years old - 132–170,
- up to 40 years old - 126–170,
- up to 50 years old - 128–170,
- up to 60 years old - 124–170,
- up to 70 years old - 122–165.
A blood test for hemoglobin often shows a deviation of this indicator in the direction of decrease or increase. Both of these conditions indicate the development of various pathological conditions in the human body.
Causes of Low Hemoglobin
So, hemoglobin in a blood test is lower than normal in the following conditions:
- Reducing the amount of components needed to produce hemoglobin. This occurs when there is insufficient intake of iron and amino acids in the body, or if their absorption in the digestive system is impaired. Protein starvation, chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, removal of the duodenum or the entire small intestine can lead to this condition.
- Violation of the hemoglobin production process. This condition can be observed with genetic pathologies, lead poisoning, sideroblastic anemia, thalassemia (Cooley anemia).
- Increased hemoglobin loss by the body. In addition to blood loss, many genetic diseases lead to this condition, for example, microspherocytosis, stomatosis, ovalocytosis, immune and autoimmune anemia.
With a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood, a person develops anemia. There are three degrees of anemia:
- first, easy - the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood is 90-120 g / l,
- second, medium - the concentration is 60–90 g / l,
- third, heavy - concentration below 60 g / l.
Causes of High Hemoglobin
There are conditions in which the hemoglobin content in the blood is higher than normal:
- Elevated hemoglobin as an option. This condition is typical for climbers and people living in highlands.
- Malignant or pernicious anemia (Addison-Birmer disease). This disease develops with a lack of folic acid and vitamin B12 in the body. Most often, it occurs in the presence of atrophic gastritis against the background of a genetic predisposition.
- Erythrocytosis. This disease appears when the blood levels of hemoglobin and red blood cells increase. It can be hereditary or develops as a result of some pathologies of internal organs. For example, a deficiency of oxygen in tissues in diseases of the lungs and heart contributes to the occurrence of erythrocytosis.
Periodically taking a blood test for hemoglobin is very important for the timely detection of many diseases and pathological conditions.
The norm of hemoglobin in the blood, its functions, causes of abnormality
Hemoglobin is the main pigment of the blood, which causes its red color. It consists of two components - a complex iron-containing substance called heme and protein globin.
Hemoglobin is contained in red blood cells and provides one of the main functions of the blood - it transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and removes carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
The amount of hemoglobin is necessarily determined as part of a general blood test - this indicator is in close interaction with the number of red blood cells and the color indicator.
The norm of hemoglobin in the blood is 135-180 g / l in men and 120-140 g / l in women.
Why does the hemoglobin level in the blood change?
The decrease in hemoglobin is called anemia and can be caused by a wide variety of factors.With anemia, body tissues do not receive the amount of oxygen they need, which negatively affects all body cells without exception, but the nervous and cardiovascular systems are especially affected.
Nerve cells are most sensitive to a lack of oxygen and the slightest lack of it leads to disturbances in this system. The cardiovascular system in anemia is trying hard work to compensate for the lack of oxygen, but this only increases the need for it of the heart muscle (myocardium).
The reasons for the low hemoglobin level may be the following factors:
- Malnutrition - with a lack of proteins, iron, vitamins (B12, C, folic acid) in the body, a sufficient amount of this pigment cannot be formed, and its deficiency occurs. Often this type of anemia is associated with a low level of hemoglobin in pregnant women, in children and adolescents, as well as vegetarians.
- The defeat of the blood-forming organs - the red bone marrow and kidneys, which control the formation of red blood cells. In such a situation, few blood cells are formed, which leads to the development of anemia. Damage to the bone marrow may be due to poisoning by heavy metals or drugs, exposure to radiation, and cancer.
- Significant in terms of blood loss, with which a large amount of hemoglobin is lost. It can be acute - as a result of injuries, and chronic - for example, heavy menstruation in women or bleeding from hemorrhoids. This leads to so-called posthemorrhagic anemia.
- Enhanced destruction of red blood cells - is called hemolytic anemia. This condition can be triggered by genetic defects of the erythrocyte membrane, poisoning by some poisons, and diseases of the spleen. Hemolytic anemia is characterized by severe jaundice.
The elevated hemoglobin content is usually caused by only one phenomenon - an abnormally high number of red blood cells. This condition is called erythrocytosis and normally occurs in residents of highlands and climbers. In other situations, erythrocytosis changes the properties of blood, increases the likelihood of blood clots and increases the load on the cardiovascular system.
Hemoglobin level is one of the most important indicators of a general blood test. It is its normal content that largely contributes to the overall stability of the whole organism as a whole.
Indicators of the critical level of hemoglobin in the blood, how dangerous is it and when to sound the alarm?
Everyone is familiar with the concept of hemoglobin. When passing blood tests, its indicator is always determined, the norms of which differ in men, women and children. A slight decrease is successfully eliminated by the correction of nutrition, drugs. But there is a threshold whose borders are deadly to human life.
Critical hemoglobin in the blood - what is it? At what hemoglobin a person dies, let's try to understand the article.