First of all, you need to decide what is considered constipation in pediatrics. In newborn babies, the absence of stool for one day is already constipation, since normally the intestines in infants are emptied from two to five times a day.
But after complementary foods are introduced, the stool should become more rare - once or twice a day. Constipation in babies at complementary foods is considered to be a chair retardation of one and a half days.
What can cause difficulties with detection? There are many reasons, and only a doctor can identify the exact one.
Delay defecation can:
- digestive system abnormalities (Hirschsprung's disease and dolichosigma). In this case, constipation in children often manifests itself in the first days of life. They are accompanied by vomiting and refusal of milk, upon examination, there is a swelling in the abdomen,
- hypothyroidism. Violations of the thyroid gland are often also accompanied by constipation, as well as peeling of the skin, low temperature, lethargy and apathy, swelling. Children with congenital hypothyroidism are often born large (more than 4 kg) and from the very first days of life they behave very calmly and rarely cry,
- rickets. A critical lack of vitamin D often causes constipation, as well as weakening of the body's defenses and a decrease in muscle tone,
- psychogenic causes. Stress and excess distractions can also cause constipation,
- lack of motor activity. As in adults, a lack of activity in children leads to a violation of the functions of the digestive tract,
- dysbiosis. This is one of the most common causes of constipation. Dysbiosis — a lack of beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract - can occur in babies for many reasons, among them:
- late attachment to the chest,
- artificial feeding
- malnutrition or malnutrition,
- lactose intolerance,
- diseases that cause malabsorption in the intestines,
- diseases of the stomach and intestines (gastroduodenitis),
- allergic diseases (food allergy, atopic dermatitis),
- acute infectious diseases (intestinal infections, flu and others),
- the use of antibiotics and other drugs.
Signs of constipation in a newborn and baby
Of course, the baby cannot tell what is bothering him. Parents will have to determine for themselves that the child has constipation.
With constipation, the kids experience very unpleasant sensations and therefore sleep poorly and cry a lot. Their appetite disappears, weight gain slows down, the tummy looks bloated, and while bathing, children are anxious: with constipation, damage to the rectum and anus is not excluded, and water irritates the wounds.
The baby’s stool normally has a liquid consistency, and if it changes its appearance, it becomes denser and drier, like peas - the child will probably have constipation.
During bowel movements, the baby pushes and blushes, and during and after feeding, it presses the legs to the stomach - this is another symptom of digestive problems.
If the bowel movement occurs less frequently than usual, but the child eats well, does not act up, and you do not notice any of the ailments described above, most likely there is no constipation.
On a note
Try not to wrap the baby, if this is not clearly necessary. Fear of cold and drafts can lead to overheating, and this exacerbates the risk of constipation.
But if you suspect a problem, contact your pediatrician immediately. Constipation in a child does not just cause discomfort - it is quite dangerous. Chronic constipation leads to serious damage to the rectum, including bleeding and infections, can cause intoxication, flatulence, hernias, so this problem should not be ignored.
What to do if the baby has constipation
Take constipation treatment seriously and don't try to deal with it yourself. The "home" methods of treating constipation in children are mostly dangerous and can only exacerbate the problem. It is necessary to consult a doctor who will prescribe a mild laxative. It is strictly forbidden to give laxatives without consulting a specialist, put candles and make enemas.
Nevertheless, parents can take certain measures to improve the condition of the baby even before visiting a doctor.
Warm baths are useful for relaxing the muscles. Mom can take them with her child, this provides additional tactile contact, which is very important for stress. To improve peristalsis, you can massage the abdomen - palm, circular movements in a clockwise direction, very gently pressing. The alternate bending of the legs to the stomach will have the same effect - an exercise that many mothers know by the name of "bicycle."
Even before you go to the doctor, you can start giving probiotics approved by your pediatrician - drugs that promote the growth of the “right” intestinal microflora. It is the lack of good bacteria that often causes constipation.
Make sure that the baby receives enough water - at least two tablespoons per day. Mom, if the baby is breast-fed, you also need to drink as much as possible, at least one and a half liters of water per day.
Nursing mothers generally should reconsider their diet. Cereals, especially rice and semolina, as well as fatty dairy products, tea, cocoa and coffee, nuts, white bread and pastries, fatty meat and fish should be excluded. Allowed foods are chicken, low-fat meat, light dairy products, fresh fruits and vegetables (especially pumpkin and carrots), and dried fruits.
If you follow these rules, constipation in a child can be avoided in principle. A mother’s balanced diet, probiotics to prevent dysbiosis, regular massage, exercise and tactile contact are very simple measures, but they can help to cope with problems such as baby constipation, colic and increased gas formation.
Probiotic drug for the treatment and prevention of constipation in a child
Finding a good probiotic for newborns and older children is easy. Today, many drugs are produced that contribute to the growth of healthy microflora. It is better to choose a product designed specifically for children. A good example of such a drug is Acipol® Baby, which contains a whole probiotic complex of lacto- and bifidobacteria in high concentration. Lactobacilli help prevent the development of inflammation of the digestive tract, allergies and diarrhea, eliminate colic and strengthen the immune system. Bifidobacteria are responsible for the normal digestion and processing of food by enzymes, intestinal motility and assimilation of nutrients.
For the treatment and prevention of constipation in babies, the manufacturer recommends taking the drug for a course of two weeks. This is convenient, since the packaging of drops is designed just for one course. Acipol® Baby can be stored at room temperature for three weeks after opening the bottle. This storage option is quite convenient, for example, during family trips.
"Acipol® Baby" is a registered remedy. State Registration Certificate No. RU.77.99.88.003.E.003651.08.17 of 08.21.2017
What is considered constipation in infants?
Doctors consider constipation in an infant a difficulty in defecation and the absence of emptying in the last day. But this concept is rather vague, since the frequency of emptying and their consistency differ in children who are breast-fed from those who are breast-fed. In addition, there are differences from the age of the baby. For a newborn baby up to one month old, the same amount as the number of meals is considered the norm of emptying.This is the norm for babies who are breastfed. For artisans, the norm is considered 2-3 times a day.
If the intestines of the baby are unstable, then special attention should be paid to this. Without consulting a doctor, it is difficult to understand when a child has constipation, and when the physiological feature of the development of the body of the baby. It is necessary to take into account not only the amount of emptying, but also what consistency, smell, shade of feces and its density. It is also very important to monitor the behavior of the baby during bowel movements. The norm of feces of a child up to six months is a semi-liquid consistency, there is no unpleasant smell, yellow, sometimes it has elements of undigested milk. In children on artificial feeding, feces are a bit denser and may smell specific.
Signs and symptoms of constipation
First of all, you need to pay attention to the condition of the baby and the consistency of his feces. Symptoms of constipation are:
- The baby is often crying and very moody.
- During a bowel movement, the baby is restless. Trying to push, but this does not lead to the desired result. Crying, expressing his pain.
- With every attempt to empty, the baby screams and moves uneasily.
- With constipation, feces are very dense, in shape resembles peas. The first is the so-called solid “cork”, and then the stool of normal consistency comes out.
- The intestines are not completely empty, the stool may linger for a couple of days.
- The child refuses to eat, sleeps restlessly, his stomach swells, gas does not escape, cries for no reason, pulls his knees to his chest, sometimes vomiting appears.
If a child has only a couple of signs from the above, then you can not be 100% sure that this is constipation. It is best to consult a doctor.
If the baby is calm, takes a breast or a bottle, empties without any discomfort, then this is definitely something else, but not constipation. Sometimes there are cases that mother's milk is completely absorbed by the child, therefore there are no emptying.
Before proceeding with the treatment of constipation, you must definitely consult a specialist, he will help to find out the causes of constipation and prescribe the necessary treatment.
How to understand that a baby has constipation
Delay or difficulty during bowel movements is called constipation. In this case, the feces become harder, which can cause unpleasant sensations in the process of emptying. Constipation in a newborn is indeed a common problem, but it is important to consider individual characteristics. For example, if one baby stains six diapers a day, and the other barely steams, then this is not necessarily a violation. The frequency of stool in infants varies with age and nutrition.
On average, newborns have bowel movements four or more times a day. The first stool after birth, the so-called meconium, is dark and dense. It is formed in utero. Then the baby begins to eat breast milk (or a mixture), and the stool becomes lighter and more fluid, it may look like pea soup or mustard.
Up to a year, a healthy baby when feeding breast milk empties the intestines from two to four times a day, on artificial feeding the stool is more rare. Since breast milk, especially colostrum, has a mild laxative effect, in infants in the first months the frequency of bowel movements may coincide with the frequency of feeding. But if a child smokes diapers less often, this does not mean that he has constipation. The main thing is regularity.
From the point of view of pediatrics, the signs of constipation in a child are the absence of bowel movements for two or three days beyond the usual, as well as difficulties or pain during bowel movements. But such symptoms are easier to identify in older children, able to say that they are in pain, and accustomed to the potty.
A newborn baby cannot explain what is bothering him, and mom needs to be guided by other signs. How to understand that a child has constipation:
- missing stool (or appears less often than usual),
- feces are denser and drier, streaks of blood may appear,
- the child is worried, crying, sleeping badly,
- during bowel movement, the baby turns red and pushes,
- after feeding, the baby cries and presses its legs to the stomach,
- the child is anxious when changing the diaper and treating the skin (if anus cracks occur as a result of constipation).
Why does a child have constipation: causes of stool disturbance in a newborn
In 95% of cases, the causes of constipation in children are functional. That is, problems are caused by malnutrition or psychogenic factors and often go away on their own. Functional constipation usually occurs in children at three stages of life:
- with the introduction of complementary foods and the transition to solid food,
- while accustoming to the pot,
- with serious stress (admission to kindergarten or school).
In order for the intestine to empty properly, two components are important - the consistency of feces and synchronous contractions of the intestinal wall. In a newborn baby, the intestine only learns to do its job correctly, because non-synchronous movements, or intestinal atony, are found in almost everyone. Most often, disruptions in nervous regulation lead to this, they can be triggered by fright or stress.
The density of feces directly depends on nutrition and digestion. So, the necessary amount of fiber and water should come from food. In addition, you need a sufficient amount of digestive enzymes and intestinal microorganisms. In newborns with artificial feeding, constipation may be due to improperly selected or improperly diluted mixtures. Constipation in infants is less common due to the laxative properties of breast milk.
Impaired intestinal flora is also closely associated with constipation. The microflora of the baby is formed from birth under the influence of nutrition and interaction with the environment. Useful microorganisms are involved in the digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients, and also help to develop immunity.
Late attachment to the chest, nutrition with mixtures - all this can violate the natural mechanism of microflora formation. Dysbiosis can occur after infections and antibiotic treatment. Violation of the microbial balance can lead to a wide variety of stool disorders, diarrhea and constipation, but constipation and their treatment can aggravate dysbiosis.
Sometimes constipation in a baby can be caused by a disease. Such constipation is called organic and are found in 5% of children. Such cases may require special treatment or emergency care. Here are just a few likely reasons:
- Hirschsprung’s disease is a congenital violation of the colon tone: the intestinal walls are poorly contracted and stool is stagnant,
- other congenital malformations and anatomical features (for example, cleft spine, abnormalities of the muscles of the abdominal wall, malformations of the anus or dolichosigma),
- violation of electrolyte metabolism (increased calcium or low potassium levels) - affects the transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contractions,
- food allergies and intolerances (allergy to cow's milk proteins, celiac disease),
- poisoning with toxins (for example, lead) or drugs (vitamin D, opiates).
Unfortunately, at the initial stage it can be difficult to distinguish whether it is functional or organic constipation. A list of disturbing symptoms can be given to help mom. So, the child must be shown to the doctor if:
- within one – ¬ two days after birth, meconium does not leave,
- the child is weak, lethargic, lack of appetite,
- the baby has poor weight gain or, conversely, weight loss,
- there is blood in the stool
- the baby has fever, vomiting.
What can be considered constipation in a baby?
From a medical point of view, constipation in a child up to a year is considered difficulty in defecation or the absence of bowel movement in the last day. This concept is quite vague, as it is closely related to the specific age of the child: in a baby with artificial feeding and in a baby, the frequency and consistency of the stool will vary significantly. For example, for newborns under the age of a month, the norm is emptying the intestines in such quantity as there were meals. This is the case with breastfeeding. For an artificial child, the norm is only 2 - 3 bowel movements per day.
Of great importance is the instability of the intestines of the baby. Without the help of a specialist, it is quite difficult to determine when the baby suffers from constipation, and when the decrease in the frequency of stool is just a physiological feature of the development of a small organism. Therefore, it is important to control not only the number of “adventures”, but also the consistency, smell, density and color of feces, the behavior of the child before and during bowel movements.
Feces of infants up to six months have a semi-liquid consistency. It is yellow in color, without an unpleasant odor, and may contain particles of undigested breast milk in the form of curdled patches. In an artist, feces are more dense, may have a characteristic specific odor.
What to do if the child has constipation: take urgent measures
The treatment for constipation depends on its causes. Organic constipation, as well as severe functional constipation, requires the participation of a doctor, and home treatment will not do. In the event of severe dehydration or poisoning, lack of professional assistance can be dangerous, so do not delay in going to the hospital!
However, if constipation occurs in a mild form, then mom can cope with it at home. Helping an infant with constipation can be divided into three stages:
- nutrition change
- effect on the nervous system
- the use of special tools.
Changes in nutrition concern primarily babies with artificial feeding and older children. Perhaps the milk mixture is not suitable in composition or incorrectly, too thick, gets divorced. It makes sense to try hypoallergenic mixtures without lactose, gluten and cow's milk proteins. For older children, you need to add more simple liquid to your diet, as well as vegetable and fruit juices without sugar. Pear, plum and apple juices with pulp perfectly help. Perhaps the baby’s diet contains too much milk, cheese, eggs or not enough fiber.
Severe stress or nervous tension can also cause constipation. Therefore, at such moments it is very important that the mother does not get nervous and does not aggravate the child’s anxiety. During an attack, the baby needs to be reassured, pressed against itself, stroked: heat and tactile contact reduce anxiety. You can use a warm bath for the same purpose. For prevention, it is advisable to provide the baby with a calm and safe atmosphere, without sharp sounds and screams. In addition, it is recommended to maintain a constant comfortable temperature in the room, to observe the regime of sleep and feeding.
If a change in nutrition and the establishment of a regimen do not help, then the turn of pharmacy funds comes. First you need to free the rectum from feces. For this purpose, glycerin suppositories can be used in babies. Then, a stool softener, such as lactulose, is added to the treatment. The purpose of such drugs and their dosage should be agreed with the attending physician. The purpose of admission is to achieve at least one soft stool per day. If the desired effect is achieved, then gradually the laxative is canceled.
In addition to treating constipation, it is important to prevent recurrence. First of all, it is necessary to establish the baby's nutrition and psycho-emotional mode. In addition, it is worth supporting the intestinal microflora of the child during digestive disorders.To restore the balance of the microbial flora, probiotics are used - beneficial microorganisms, and prebiotics - substances that help beneficial bacteria grow and multiply.
One of the most common and studied probiotics are lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, in particular Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium longum. They can be found in breast milk. Together, these bacteria help digest food, inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the intestines and strengthen the defenses of a small organism. Moreover, Bifidobacterium longum improve intestinal motility, which naturally helps with constipation. Probiotic can be given with constipation, and during the recovery period.
In conclusion, I must say that if a child begins constipation, parents will need a lot of patience. This applies primarily to establishing the baby’s nutrition and the psychoemotional regimen. The next important step will be the training of the child in the pot, and here it is important to take into account the natural physiological maturity of the body. On average, the baby’s nervous and muscular systems reach the required level of development only by 18–24 months, and earlier conflict education will only aggravate the situation. But if you act carefully and carefully, taking into account the natural mechanisms of development of the digestive system and supporting them, then in the future it will help to avoid many problems.
Causes of constipation
In the early stages of constipation, it is easy enough to fight it, simply by eliminating the causes of the constipation. These include:
- Lack of fluid
This is an extremely relevant cause of constipation for babies with artificial feeding, especially in the hot summer or winter, when the room has dry air due to heating devices. Be sure to increase the amount of water consumed by the child. The popular pediatrician Komarovsky strongly recommends dosing even for breast-fed infants.
- Poor nutrition of a nursing mother, an adapted mixture that is not suitable for the child, lack of products that stimulate the digestive tract (beets, pumpkins, dried apricots, figs, apples, peach, apricot, prunes and others)
When choosing a mixture for an artificial child, you should opt for baby food without iron in the composition. In the case of breastfeeding, mother needs to exclude refined foods, tea, coffee, convenience foods, rich fatty broths, bakery products, rice, nuts, bananas and other foods that “fix” from the diet. Product List for Nursing Mom.
- Taking certain medicines with your baby or nursing mother
Constipation is possible when taking antidepressants, antispasmodics. antibiotics, bismuth and iron preparations, NSAIDs, anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants. Acceptance and cancellation of any medications, both by the mother and the baby, must be previously agreed with the pediatrician.
- Breast milk deficiency
It causes the so-called "hungry constipation" in the infant. In this case, all the food consumed is absorbed into the walls of the internal organs and blood, and the intestines simply have nothing to process.
- The introduction of complementary foods
More often, the introduction of complementary foods contributes to the normalization of the digestive tract, but it also causes difficulties with stools. You should carefully monitor the reaction of the intestines to new dishes. Also, early feeding can help constipation.
- Power Shift
This is possible with a sharp loss of milk from the mother, the replacement of one adapted mixture to another, or an incorrect transition from one type of feeding to another. Usually constipation disappears after adapting to new food.
- Psychological constipation
This is by no means a myth, as some think. The child’s body, in unusual or uncomfortable conditions (for example, when the baby breaks up with her mother), responds to stress in this way.Also, the child may be afraid to recover due to the pain that occurs at that moment. In this case, it is necessary to try to return the normal mushy consistency to the baby's stool, adhering to the diet.
There is another reason for psychological constipation - a child can manipulate adults in this way. If any signs of constipation in the baby cause a panic in his parents and the parents begin to constantly feel sorry, comfort and fuss around the baby, then the baby can consciously hold up the stool. The only treatment in this situation will be a calm attitude to the problem.
- Cold or Infectious Diseases
An increase in body temperature can provoke a significant compaction of feces and lead to constipation.
It is extremely important that constipation itself can relate to one of the signs of serious diseases and pathologies, therefore it is important not to engage in independent treatment, but to consult a doctor. Such diseases include:
- Genetic predisposition.
- Anatomical defects of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Violations of the digestive tract.
- Diseases of the nervous system.
- Myasthenia gravis
- Spinal cord dysfunction.
- Liver disease.
- Lactose deficiency.
- Allergic reaction to protein in cow's milk.
- Food allergy.
Diseases that lead to constipation. Fortunately, these diseases are not common. These include dolichosigma, Hirschsprung's disease and lactase deficiency.
- Dolichosigma is an extension of the sigmoid colon. Bowel movement slows down due to excesses and excessive pressure of the sigmoid colon on itself and the rectum,
- Hirschsprung's disease occurs due to impaired intestinal innervation. This leads to the fact that some parts of the intestine do not work and are in a spasmodic state,
- Lactase deficiency appears due to the absence or small amount of an enzyme that breaks down milk sugar (lactase). In this case, the baby’s constipation will be replaced by diarrhea.
Only a doctor will be able to identify such constipation in infants, and only a doctor decides what to do in this situation.
Treatment of constipation
The first task in the treatment of constipation is to determine its cause and eliminate it. To establish the normal functioning of the intestines of the newborn, it is necessary:
- Medical examination.
- With breastfeeding, more frequent application to the chest.
- For a child using artificial nutrition, dosing with special children's water (not boiled) between meals, while the volume of liquid should be equal to the volume of one serving.
- For a baby older than 6 months, an introduction to the diet of apples and vegetables.
- For a child after a year - soup, as an obligatory dish in the daily diet.
General recommendations for combating constipation also include: correction of the nutrition of the mother and baby, increasing the amount of fluid consumed, changing the nature of complementary foods or changing the adapted mixture to one that contains more lactobacilli.
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Separately, we should dwell on the issue of complementary foods. Independent experts have long proved that store juices, mashed potatoes and other "jars for children", regardless of the manufacturer, are made with the addition of rather harmful substances and preservatives and are the strongest allergens for the child. Try to find some time to make really healthy foods. From ordinary carrots or apples you will get many times more healthy and fortified puree or juice. The money saved on the purchase of a dangerous Agusha can be spent on a convenient blender or juicer, which will facilitate the preparation of foods for feeding.
Enema and laxatives should be used only as a last resort. They wash out beneficial microflora from the intestines: potassium, vitamins, protein, microelements, help to reduce muscle tone of the intestines, lead to a violation of the reflex of natural cleansing of the intestines, and interfere with the absorption of beneficial substances. Before using these emergency measures in a panic, you should try milder and harmless methods, which in most cases give a positive result. These methods include:
It is aimed at relieving spasm, increasing bowel tone and activating its peristalsis. It is performed by soft strokes with a slight pressure on the baby’s stomach. Movements must be performed clockwise. You can additionally put on a tummy crumbs ironed towel or diaper. Just make sure that it is not hot, but warm. Warm baths and warmth of the mother’s body also help: just gently press the baby with his tummy against his own stomach.
Massage the abdomen with constipation:
Intestinal mechanical stimulation
It is performed by irritation of the anus. Can be done with a cotton swab, richly greased with baby cream. The stick is superficially inserted into the anus and gently rotated several times. Usually, a bowel movement occurs after a few minutes.
During the procedure, there is a risk of scratching the epithelium of the anus with a stick, so you need to act extremely carefully, with gentle movements, do not abuse this method.
For similar purposes, a special vent pipe is provided. It is also gently inserted into the rectum, which allows you to activate the defecation process.
You can use special rectal suppositories for newborns. They quickly soften feces and help cleanse the intestines. For a newborn, 1/3 suppository is enough. It must be carefully cut and, smoothing with a finger the sharp ends, slowly and carefully enter into the anus.
All the difficulties associated with dividing the suppository, calculating the dosage, etc. can be avoided by using special children's glycerin suppositories Glicelax®. Glycelax® suppository has a reduced size and a children's dosage of 0.75 g of glycerol, so parents do not need to perform additional manipulations - you just need to remove the candle from the package and put it in the child. 15-20 minutes after setting the candle, a soft and natural bowel movement occurs. Glycelax® suppositories can be used in children from three months of age; suppositories are safe and hypoallergenic.
There is an old and supposedly effective “grandmother's” method of treating constipation, in which a bar of soap is used instead of a glycerin suppository. You need to know that this is a very dangerous way: soap contains alkali and other harmful substances that can lead to a burn of the rectum. Even when using baby soap, it is difficult to guarantee that it is made without hazardous components.
If, after an hour after the introduction of the suppository, the child did not empty the intestines, a doctor should be called. Some suppositories can cause unpleasant sensations: burning, itching, allergic reactions, so suppositories also apply to emergency measures. Before use, be sure to study the anatomy.
Enema is considered an emergency measure of relief from constipation. A syringe (20-30 ml) with cooled boiled water or a decoction of medicinal chamomile is injected to a depth of no more than 1.5 cm into the anus of an infant and slowly inject all the fluid. The required fluid temperature is about 37 ° C. It is advisable to dissolve a pinch of table salt in enema water and add a couple of drops of pharmacy glycerin. When buying a syringe, stop choosing not on a plastic, but on a rubber or silicone tip, they are less traumatic. Previously, the tip of the syringe should be generously lubricated with baby cream or oil.Too warm water should not be used: it is simply absorbed into the intestinal wall, and the desired result will not be achieved.
A modern analogue of an enema with a milder effect is Microlax, designed specifically for newborns. It is a microclyster based on a water-salt solution with the addition of glycerin. The effect of Microlax occurs a quarter of an hour after application. You must first familiarize yourself with the instructions for use, and do not enter the tip into the rectum beyond the drawn line.
These methods can be used as emergency measures, especially with regular constipation. Frequent use of an enema disrupts the work and the favorable microflora of the intestinal tract and causes dysbiosis, which will have to be treated with probiotics.
Taking laxatives is necessary only when nothing else helps. Infants under one year old are contraindicated in most laxatives. An exception is Dufalac syrup and similar drugs based on lactulose. To cause bowel movement, Dufalac must be given crumbs in a volume of 5 ml. If the baby feeds on breast milk, then the nursing mother can also use the product.
A six-month-old child can take Forlax. Its great advantage is the duration of use up to three months.
Before using any product, remember that medications can only be prescribed by the attending physician, and emergency measures are allowed to be used only when absolutely necessary: when all treatments for constipation have been ineffective.
Often in young children, a stomach ache. How to help a child? What are the best treatments for constipation in an infant? Do I need to use drugs or can I do with folk remedies? The pediatrician of the Home Doctor with extensive experience Orlova Galina Viktorovna answers all these questions:
The simplest and most effective method of treatment is the prevention of the disease. The health of children under one year of age requires constant monitoring and attention. Do not wait for the first signs of constipation, immediately start preventative measures.
- A simple but effective way is very useful: before feeding, lay the baby for several minutes on the tummy, after eating, carry the crumb for several minutes in a column,
- Exercise regularly. To do this, put the baby on the back, gently and smoothly lift its legs bent at the knees and gently press it to the tummy. Repeat several times, avoiding sudden movements. It’s also useful to do the exercise “bike”,
- Provide crumbs with the required amount of fluid. Instead of tea and juices, it is better to drink special bottled baby water. Boil it is not necessary. With the introduction of complementary foods, juices must be diluted with water,
- If the baby is more than 4 months old, prune juice helps with constipation. Two teaspoons is enough. After six months, you can use mashed prunes. Both fresh fruits and dried fruits are equally effective. You can add prune berries to compotes,
- Do not confuse the baby. Overheating, along with dehydration, is one of the main causes of constipation. This is also true for colds and infectious diseases: if a baby has a fever, drink it as often as possible, otherwise constipation after an illness cannot be avoided,
- Effective drinks from constipation - compote of dried fruits with dried apricots and prunes, raisin water. To prepare it, just pour a spoonful of pure raisins with boiling water and insist in a thermos,
- Prefer vegetables with a "laxative effect" and a high content of coarse fiber, fruits rich in potassium. These are figs, green apples, prunes, dried apricots, beets, carrots, peaches, apricots, pumpkins. These same products should be introduced into the diet of a nursing mother,
- Extremely useful for intestinal microflora preparations with bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, fermented milk products, natural yoghurts. They are shown to both the child and mother,
- Try to give the baby the breast as long as possible, the first six months are especially important. If this is not possible, give preference to sour-milk adapted mixtures,
- If you need treatment with antibiotics, at the same time as taking them, start giving funds for the prevention of dysbiosis.
Do not panic if the baby is constipated. The first step to recovery is to identify and eliminate the causes of the disease. But do not self-medicate and do not use grandmother's treatment methods without consulting a doctor. Most often, it is enough to establish nutrition, drink more fluids and do not forget about massage and gymnastics, so that the ailment recedes. In emergency situations, Dufalac, glycerin suppositories or an enema will help. Show maximum attention to the treatment of constipation. The formation and normalization of the digestive tract in the first year of life is the key to the future health of the child.
On the topic of newborn stool:
Constipation in the age period of up to one year is considered the absence of bowel movement within 24 hours. Instability of the intestines of the baby is often misleading to the parents - a physiological decrease in the number of bowel movements is mistakenly perceived as a violation.
Mothers need to pay attention to:
- the number of bowel movements
- the baby’s behavior at the time and after them,
- consistency, color,
- density of feces.
In infants who are breast-fed, until the first half of life, stools are normally semi-liquid, with a yellowish tint, without a persistent smell. Artists may have something pasty discharge, with a slight specific odor and a tan.
When breast milk (during the first month), the number of bowel movements corresponds to the frequency of food intake.
Approximate standards for HS:
- 1 month - up to 6-7 times,
- 2-6 months - up to 4-5 times,
- after six months up to 2 times during the day.
In the case of IV - they are reduced to several units per day, regardless of the age subgroup.
Causes and symptoms of the violation
The main symptomatic manifestations include:
- regular stool delay not a day or two,
- incomplete bowel movement,
- screams, restless movements when trying to empty,
- frequent unsuccessful attempts, accompanied by crying, screaming,
- refusal of food,
All these signs are indirect to determine the possible constipation in the baby. Appeal to the local pediatrician will clarify the diagnosis and get the necessary recommendations for treatment.
The root causes of problems with the bowel movement are directly related to the options for feeding infants.
Nutrition for constipation in infants
Treatment of constipation in an infant should be comprehensive and must include certain changes in nutrition. They are prescribed taking into account the age of the baby and what type of food he consumes in a given period. For children up to six months, the only food is mother's milk or infant formula. After reaching the age of six months, new foods gradually begin to be introduced into the child’s diet, which can cause him to fasten or loosen his stool.
Maternal nutrition in case of constipation in breast-fed children
In case of constipation in children who eat exclusively breast milk, treatment should begin with a correction of the nutrition of the nursing mother. The composition of breast milk depends on the products that a woman consumes during lactation.
With a delay in defecation in the baby, the nursing mother must adhere to the following recommendations in food:
- eat more foods rich in coarse dietary fiber (vegetables, fruits, cereals),
- exclude foods that can cause constipation (rice, semolina, white bread and sweet pastries, fatty meat, black tea, etc.),
- drink more fluids
- include laxative products (melon, prunes, dried apricots, figs, beets, pumpkin),
- consume fermented milk products (kefir and yogurt) that contribute to regular bowel movements.
Important: Sometimes a lack of breast milk in the mother can lead to constipation in the baby, which makes it necessary to introduce supplementary foods to eliminate this problem.
Artificial feeding for babies
Children who are on artificial or mixed feeding are much more likely to suffer from constipation compared to babies who are fed only breast milk. This is due to the fact that even despite the high degree of adaptation of modern infant formula, they are too different in composition from breast milk and do not take into account the individual needs of each child in a certain period.
If constipation occurs in newborns in this case, the first thing to do is to seek the advice of a pediatrician. He is likely to recommend giving the child more water, and if the desired result is still not there, then replace the milk mixture with another. To normalize the functioning of the intestines and regular stool, sour-milk mixtures containing beneficial lactic acid bacteria and enhancing intestinal motility are well suited.
Important: Replacement of the infant formula for feeding the baby should be carried out under the supervision of a doctor.
Nutrition for children after six months
After 6 months, new adult foods begin to be introduced into the baby's diet. For children prone to constipation, complementary foods are recommended to start with vegetables, fruits, rich in coarse dietary fiber, which contribute to increased intestinal motility and the formation of feces soft consistency. From vegetables and fruits for babies, puree and freshly squeezed juices diluted with water are prepared.
With constipation, it helps:
- carrot juice
- mashed prunes, apricots, peaches, apples,
- decoctions and stewed fruit,
- cereals rich in fiber (oat, corn, buckwheat),
- milk products adapted for a certain age of the baby.
Important: If the baby’s constipation is caused or accompanied by increased gas formation, he is advised to give tea with fennel, which can be bought at the pharmacy or made from dill seeds yourself.
Massage in the treatment of constipation in babies up to a year
The cause of constipation in many newborns is the underdevelopment of nerve endings in the wall of the colon, which leads to a temporary inability to properly contract and promote intestinal contents to the anus. This condition is a physiological feature of the development of children and does not require any special treatment, as it passes on its own by two months of age. However, you can help your child get his bowels working with a tummy massage and exercise. These methods are safe and easy to perform, without requiring parents any special knowledge and skills.
How to help a newborn with constipation by charging and massage? The following exercises are recommended:
- Clockwise stroking the baby with a warm palm across the tummy, avoiding sudden movements. It is enough to make only 5-10 such circular motions.
- Alternating flexion and extension (5 times) of the baby's legs in the knee joints in the supine position. When performing this exercise, the front of the child’s thigh should be pressed against the tummy during flexion.
- In the position of the baby lying on his back, pull his legs to the tummy, bending them at the knees and alternately straightening one or the other leg. Repeat 5 times for each leg.
- In the supine position to do the baby exercise "bike".
- Spreading the baby on the tummy from 2 to 15 minutes, depending on his age.
- In the position of the baby lying on his stomach, do stroking movements with the palm of his hand on the back in the direction from the shoulder blades to the coccyx. Do 5 reps.
The above exercises help improve intestinal motility and facilitate its emptying.
Important: Warming has a positive effect on intestinal function. They relieve spasm and help relax the muscles of the colon, which is especially true for spastic constipation. To do this, apply a warm diaper to the baby’s tummy, lower it into a warm bath, or simply tummy it on mom’s or father’s belly.
Medicines for constipation in infants
Treatment of constipation in newborns and children of one year with medication is undesirable and is carried out strictly according to the doctor's prescription if changes in nutrition and massage did not lead to the expected positive result. Laxatives used to treat infants should have a mild effect, not cause spasms in the intestine and not disturb its microflora.
The drugs approved for use in constipation in infants include:
- glycerin suppositories, soften the accumulated feces and contribute to the rapid emptying of the intestines of the baby soon after the introduction of the suppository,
- preparations based on lactulose, which have a mild laxative effect, are not addictive and contribute to the normalization of intestinal microflora,
- Espumisan, Plantex, are prescribed in the treatment of constipation, accompanied by increased gas formation in the intestine,
- Microclysters Microlax, which is a ready-made solution of a viscous consistency for insertion into the cavity of the rectum of a child,
- Hilak forte, Linex, Bifidum bacterin, are used in the treatment of constipation caused by impaired intestinal microflora.
Important: The systematic use of laxatives, and especially mechanical irritation of the rectum with the help of a gas outlet tube, cotton swabs and other means, can lead to a weakening in the child's natural reflex of bowel movement.
Constipation in a newborn can occur in various situations. You cannot immediately make a diagnosis without knowing the current clinical picture and the course of development of the disease itself.
Constipation in infants can disturb parents, because the child is still very young, and toxins that are located in the intestines can be reabsorbed by the body. Parents begin to resort to all available means to solve the problem.
What if the newborn has constipation? How to deal with this problem? What can be recommended to parents? The answers to these questions can be found below.
1 Brief recommendations
In some situations, parents themselves determine the group of drugs and means that they will use to help the baby. Not always folk remedies, which have repeatedly proved their effectiveness, can have a beneficial effect on the health of children.
Parents should understand that without medical advice, any treatment can only harm. Many drugs may be applicable to adults, but not to a baby. Sometimes, parents themselves choose treatment, trusting advertising or the experience of their neighbors. The result does not live up to expectations. They begin to panic and acquire all kinds of suppositories in the pharmacy, use special enemas for babies and gas pipes.
It is necessary to solve problems as they become available. Identify possible causes that may cause this condition. First of all, you need to understand that the baby has constipation. Then determine the cause, and only then proceed to treatment.
Among the main features that can be characterized:
- Lack of stool for about 1.5-2 days or difficulties with bowel movements.
- Lack of norm.Under normal conditions, in the age group up to 3 months, 2-4 single stools are considered optimal.
- Difficulties with emptying experienced by the baby. The cause may be increased fecal density.
Over time, the frequency begins to decrease to 1-2 times. The fact is that the intestinal system of the baby is undeveloped and therefore can not fully cope with various tasks, including: digesting food consumed and absorbing useful vitamins and minerals.
If the baby has an absence of stool for more than a day, we can talk about the appearance of constipation. Doctors say that periodic constipation in newborns can be observed everywhere. Normal nutrition can quickly help and minimize possible harm to the child. With constipation in newborns, doctors recommend changing the diet of the baby.
2 Main problems
The main reasons that can cause constipation should be determined by the doctor during the initial examination. Experts do not recommend self-diagnosis, as adult drugs can be categorically contraindicated in young children.
Among other factors influencing the development of the problem, the transition from one type of feeding to another deserves special attention. It will be about specific cases of the transition of the baby from natural to artificial feeding.
If the newborn has constipation, you need to pay attention to the milk mixture. A trivial change in type or brand can lead to undesirable consequences. Improper maternal nutrition can lead to undesirable consequences in the body of the child. In this case, nutritional adjustment and further analysis of the condition may help.
There are a certain number of products that will be contraindicated for many children. They can cause stool disorders. With an insufficient amount of breast milk, we can talk about the development of starvation constipation. The food that enters the body is completely absorbed, so the child does not defecate.
When diagnosing infectious and viral diseases in a newborn, you can see the development of constipation. The process occurs due to the fact that an insufficient amount of fluid enters the body. Parents should give their child more water.
In some cases, this problem can be observed in the case of premature introduction of complementary foods. The intestine is not ready to cope with such a load and as a result a problem arises. Among other reasons, we can note the allergic factor, which occupies a significant share in the overall structure.
3 First steps in treatment
If proper treatment is not given, the problem begins to progress. The primary symptoms can only worsen over time. If the child is constantly crying, any parent begins to worry.
How to help babies? It is best to start with a massage. Everything is done very simply. With smooth movements of the palm, a circle must be described on the baby’s tummy, the direction is clockwise. For additional stimulation of intestinal motility, you can make a "bicycle". The kid will be delighted with jointly held warm baths.
If constipation has been detected in a small patient, parents are advised to place it on their stomach, this activates the intestines. There are a number of products that can help in the current situation.
Bowel problems can be resolved by giving your child foods that contain fiber. Vegetable or fruit puree suitable for the age of the baby can help.
Also, the product may have some requirements:
- Excessive processing of raw materials.
- Very soft consistency.
Children's body does not tolerate dehydration. What to do if the problem persists? Soap for constipation is pushed into the rectum of a newborn baby. You can also use a cotton swab or a thermometer.
First, a cotton swab is taken, pre-lubricated with baby cream / petroleum jelly and carefully injected into the anus of the child. If you don’t have such tools at hand, you can use ready-made vent pipes, which can be purchased at almost any pharmacy.
The next way is to use glycerin suppositories, which are designed specifically for newborn babies. In most cases, they do their job. You can insert only a third of the candles and thereby simplify the emptying of the baby.
To date, there are many tools that guarantee a quick get rid of this problem. All possible side effects and age group must be taken into account. One of the common forms of release is considered a mixture of constipation, but you can not use them without consulting a doctor.
If none of the presented methods helped, you can do an enema. It can be used only in extreme cases. Before starting the procedure, prepare a special syringe and fill it with a warm solution. The amount of liquid will vary from 20 to 30 ml.
The anus is lubricated with cream / petroleum jelly and the tip of the syringe is inserted into it. Gently push in the entire solution. If the enema did not help, you need to urgently consult your doctor. There is a high probability of developing pathological changes.
Laxatives can suppress the natural emptying reflex, and intestinal motility will decrease in the newborn in the future. Properly provided therapy can significantly accelerate the healing process. Be healthy!
If you are a parent, then probably follow every laugh of your child, rejoice when he feels good. And immediately notice if the baby begins to have health problems. Although some unpleasant symptoms are a little more difficult to detect. It's about constipation.
The nature of the stool in infants varies from child to child in the same way as in adults. What is normal for your child may differ from what is normal for another. Most children poop 1 or 2 times a day. In other babies, it may take 2 to 3 days or more before normal stool occurs.
The functioning of the intestines will greatly change throughout the life of the child. At times, these changes may indicate that the baby is constipated.
Constipation is a condition of the body when the stool is not as regular as usual. Feces are plentiful, and going to the toilet is painful. Sometimes the stool can be loose, but it can also mean constipation in the baby.
Symptoms of constipation in infants
A child who consumes exclusively breast milk may not defecate every day. Often almost all nutrients are absorbed. This is very common. Children who are fed infant formula can have up to three to four bowel movements per day.
However, normal bowel movement (peristalsis) in healthy children varies greatly. It depends on the type of milk, on the introduction of coarse fibers into the food and on which specific foods are consumed.
Understanding the possible signs of constipation can help parents discover the potential threat of constipation before having difficulty emptying becomes a big problem.
Constipation in a baby can be determined by several symptoms:
- The delay of the chair. The number of bowel movements per day will fluctuate, especially if the parents introduce the baby to new products. If several days pass without bowel movement, the baby may have constipation.
- Voltage. If the child is very tense in the process of releasing the intestines, then this may be a signal for constipation. The stool in such children is very hard, like clay. Such feces is very difficult for the bowel movement, so the baby will push or strain more than usual to poke. Children can be fussy and cry when they empty their bowels.
- Blood in the stool. If you notice streaks of bright red blood in your baby’s stool, it’s probably a sign that he is very tense to release his intestines. The shock and tension can cause tiny cracks around the anus, which then comes to light in the form of blood.
- Hard stomach. A tight stomach can be a sign of constipation. Bloating and pressure caused by constipation can cause a swollen or stiff abdomen. Frequent colic can also be a symptom of constipation.
- Refusal of food. With constipation, the child is quickly saturated. He may also refuse to eat due to growing discomfort.
Causes of constipation in infants:
- nutrition. Changes in diet, lack of coarse fiber (fiber) or fluid in the diet can cause constipation in a child,
- disease. If the baby is sick and has lost his appetite, changes in his diet can cause constipation. Also, constipation in a baby can be a side effect of taking certain medications. In a newborn, constipation can be a sign of a certain disease. For example, hypothyroidism - a decrease in thyroid function,
- intentional retention of feces. A child can hold his chair for various reasons. For example, to avoid pain when passing hard feces. It can be even more painful if the baby has a bad diaper,
- allergy to cow's milk. Milk intolerance sometimes causes constipation in a month-old baby,
- heredity. In children whose family members suffer from constipation, this disease often develops. This may be due to general genetic or environmental factors,
- congenital diseases. Sometimes constipation in a newborn indicates an anatomical malformation, metabolic disorder or congenital pathology of the digestive system,
- other changes. In general, any changes in the child’s daily routine (for example, traveling, hot weather or stressful situations) can affect his overall health and how his intestines function.
When do I need to see a doctor?
Constipation in children is usually not a serious condition. However, chronic constipation can lead to complications or signal an underlying illness.
Show your child a doctor if constipation lasts more than two weeks or if there are the following symptoms:
- weight loss
- blood in the stool
- painful cracks in the skin in the anus (anal fissures),
- prolapse of the intestine from the anus (rectal prolapse).
In order to determine constipation, the attending physician must do the following:
- Collect complete information about your medical history. The specialist will ask about past illnesses, about the nutrition and physical condition of the child.
- To conduct an examination, which is likely to include a finger examination of the rectum of the child, to check if there are developmental abnormalities, cracks or dense stools. Stool found in the rectum can be tested for blood.
Extensive research is conducted in more severe cases of constipation. Diagnostics consists of several procedures:
- Radiography of the abdominal organs. This standard x-ray examination allows you to find out if there is an intestinal obstruction.
- Anorectal manometry, or mobility test. In this study, a thin tube called a catheter is placed in the rectum to measure the coordination movements of the muscles that allow for bowel movement.
- X-ray with a barium enema (x-ray examination of the intestine). By means of an enema, the intestinal mucosa is covered with a contrast agent (barium) so that the rectum, colon, and sometimes part of the small intestine become clearly visible in the x-ray.
- Rectal biopsy. In this study, a small piece of rectal mucosa is taken. Do this in order to make sure that the function of nerve cells is normal.
- Transit study, or marker study. In this analysis, the child swallows a capsule that has markers that appear on x-rays taken over several days. The doctor will analyze how the markers pass through the baby’s digestive tract.
- Blood tests. Blood tests are sometimes done. For example, on thyroid hormones.
Treatment of constipation in infants
Depending on various factors, the doctor may recommend what to do if the child has constipation. These can be procedures or certain drugs.
- Dietary fiber preparations. If a child does not get a lot of fiber from their diet, supplementation with fiber supplements can help. However, the child should drink plenty of water daily so that these drugs work well. Consult your doctor to find out which dose is appropriate for the baby’s age and body weight.
Glycerin suppositories can be used to soften stool in children. A suppository stimulates the baby's rectum and helps empty it. Do not use suppositories regularly, because the child will develop a reflex to the act of defecation only after suppositories.
How to treat constipation in an infant at home?
In addition to changes in diet and regimen, various approaches can help eliminate constipation in children at home.
Here are some tips on what you can do when an infant has constipation:
- Help your child do the exercise. If the baby is crawling, ask the baby to do several circles. If you are not crawling, try the following exercise instead. While the baby is lying on its back, carefully make circular motion with its feet, as if the baby was riding a bicycle.
- Massage the abdomen. Measure the width of three fingers below the navel. And on the left side of the abdomen is not rude, but firmly press with your fingertips. Massage until you feel a dense mass. Keep gentle but constant pressure for about three minutes.
- If the baby is exclusively breastfed, the mother may try to change her diet. After all, the baby is very sensitive to what the nursing mother eats. Remove foods suspected of causing constipation in babies from your daily menu.
- If you are feeding a baby with a mixture, consult your doctor about switching to a mixture from constipation for newborns, at least until the constipation disappears. Sensitivity to certain ingredients can also cause constipation. Sometimes the use of dill water gives a positive effect.
- Proper drinking regimen is essential for regular bowel movements. Vodichka and milk are great for watering a baby. Prunes and pear juice accelerate intestinal motility, which helps the baby go to the toilet faster. If the juice is too sweet or acidic for the baby, try diluting the drink with water.
- If constipation occurs in a child 5 months of age or older, try giving a few tablespoons of prunes, apricots, or pears to loosen stools. To achieve a positive result, first give the baby a massage of the abdomen, and then give high-calorie foods.
- If your child has hard, dry feces and you see a small amount of blood or even small cracks on the delicate skin near the anus, you can apply aloe lotion to this area to help heal. Keep your baby's ass clean and dry.
- A warm bath soothes almost everyone. The idea is that warm water will help the baby relax, allowing his body to let go of what he was holding. The time when you wipe the baby after bathing is the most suitable time to try the technique of massage the tummy.
- If none of the previous tips have helped relieve constipation, a doctor visit is necessary to rule out any other potentially serious illnesses.
Preparation for visiting a doctor
If the child’s constipation lasts more than two weeks, parents are likely to seek medical attention. If necessary, the baby will be referred to a specialist in digestive upset (gastroenterologist). He will describe in more detail how to treat constipation in infants.
Here is some information to help you get ready and know what to expect from a doctor.
You can prepare by following a few important steps:
- When making an appointment with a doctor, ask if there is anything that needs to be done in advance. For example, limit the diet of the child.
- Record any symptoms that are observed in the child. Including any manifestations that may seem unrelated to the reason why you planned a visit.
- Record the start date for constipation in the child and any other coincidental events. Include notes on the frequency and appearance of the stool, as well as any changes that have been noticed in the feces (frequency, volume and content), as well as what and how much the child eats and drinks.
- Record crucial personal information, including any important stresses or recent changes in life.
- Make a list of all the medicines, vitamins, or supplements your child is taking. Tell your doctor what steps you have taken to try to treat your baby’s constipation.
Write down questions to ask your doctor. There are certain key questions your doctor should ask:
- What is the most likely cause of my child's symptoms?
- Are there any other reasons?
- What kind of research does my child need?
- How long can this go on?
- What treatments do you recommend?
- How to help a newborn with constipation?
- Do I need to make changes to my baby’s diet?
- Should we visit another specialist?
- What to give babies from constipation?
- Is there an alternative to the medicine you are prescribed?
- Can this problem be treated without medication?
Your doctor may ask some questions. You must be prepared to answer them. Your doctor may check the following information:
- When did a child first show signs of constipation?
- Were these symptoms persistent or accidental?
- How severe are the symptoms?
- What, in your opinion, improves the condition of the child?
- What makes the baby worse?
- Do you see blood in a stool or on a diaper?
- Does the child tense up during an act of defecation?
- Does the baby have a hereditary predisposition to digestive problems?
- Has the child started taking any new drugs or has he changed the dosage of current drugs?
- Can you describe the experience of teaching your child to potty?
Since each child has an individual intestinal function, read the conditions for normal bowel movements for the baby. Pay attention to the regular size and consistency of the chair. This will help you and your pediatrician determine when constipation occurs and how serious the problem is.
A frequent cause of sleepless nights of young parents is a malfunction of the child's emerging intestinal tract: colic, flatulence and constipation. According to statistics, every fifth baby suffers.Artificial or mixed-fed infants are usually susceptible to unpleasant illness, but infants are at risk. What is the reason for constipation and babies, how to avoid this, what emergency measures can be applied and how to provide the baby with comfortable digestion are tasks of paramount importance. A frivolous attitude of parents to this problem or the use of medications and treatment methods inconsistent with the pediatrician is fraught for the crumb with a host of complications at an older age.
With HB (breastfeeding)
Violations of the norms of nutrition by the mother - excessive use of products that can cause negative reactions of the body. These include:
- white bread, pastry,
- fatty meats
- high fat cheeses,
- Black tea,
Specific medicines taken by a nursing woman:
- No-shpa, Papaverin,
- iron preparations
- medicines for gastroduodenitis.
Milk deficiency - a low level of production causes a syndrome of "hungry" intestines. The minimum amount of breast milk is absorbed into the mucous membranes, not reaching the gastrointestinal tract. The ailment is determined by the absence of weight gain in control checks. Transitions to another or additional food - in the absence of milk, transfer to artificial mixtures. Incorrectly selected supplementary feed (introduced in the third week of life) - with insufficient amount of breast milk.
Lure - an independent, without the advice of a pediatrician, a modified diet designed for babies after the fourth month of life.
Complex remedy for constipation in a newborn
For example, Acipol® Baby is used as an additional source of two highly active probiotic microorganisms for children from birth. These are drops for oral administration in the form of an oily emulsion in a bottle (4.5 ml) with a dosage dropper cap, thanks to which you can conveniently and accurately dispense the product.
The composition of the drops includes lactobacilli Lactobacillus rhamnosus and bifidobacteria Bifidobacterium longum, which help restore the balance of microflora and, as a result, improve the intestines, and also relieve the baby from constipation. They participate in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, probiotics help strengthen immunity.
The use of Acipol® Baby is quite simple: drops can be mixed with milk at a temperature not exceeding 37 ° C. It is enough to take five drops (or 0.25 ml) per day for two weeks. One single dose contains colony forming units (CFU) of viable strains of bacteria:
- Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 - 1 × 10 9 CFU,
- Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7894 - 5 × 10 8 CFU.
The bottle is designed for a course of administration, which is only 14 days. After opening, the vial can be stored at room temperature for up to three weeks. Drops do not contain lactose, therefore, suitable for children with lactase deficiency.
The individual intolerance of the components cannot be ruled out, so before using it is worth consulting with your doctor-pediatrician.
Acipol® Kid in the register of certificates of state registration of Rospotrebnadzor - RU.77.99.88.003.E.003651.08.17, registration date - August 21, 2017.
Delayed stool in a baby is usually accompanied by abdominal pain, bloating, crying and anxiety.
Special probiotic complexes with “living bacteria” for young children help reduce the risk of dysbiosis and normalize intestinal microflora.
One of the causes of constipation in newborns is the introduction of complementary foods.
The balance of normal intestinal microflora is an important factor in the immunological barrier of the child’s body and the quick adaptation of the child’s body.
Probiotics are cultures of “living” beneficial bacteria for the balance of intestinal microflora and the proper functioning of the intestine.
The beneficial bacteria in Acipol ® Baby Drops help eliminate dysbiosis in infants.
- 1 Deborah M. Consolini. Constipation in children Electronic resource. - Access mode:
https://www.msdmanuals.com/en/homes/problems-co-health- of children / symptoms- of infants- children / constipation- children. -
Zagl. from the screen.
- 2 Kamalova A.A., Shakirova A.R. Functional constipation in young children:
diagnosis and therapy in practice Electronic resource / Russian Bulletin of Perinatology and Pediatrics.
- 2016. - No. 4. - Access mode: https://www.ped-perinatology.ru/jour/article/viewFile/362/391. - Zagl. from the screen.
Taking probiotics and prebiotics does not cancel the baby's showing to the pediatrician, especially if constipation lasts more than three days. In this case, you need to keep your finger on the pulse so as not to miss the warning symptoms: monitor body temperature in the morning and evening, monitor whether the vomiting reflex has increased. Usually, feeding is canceled for the period of constipation, give the child a sufficient amount of fluid, and periodically do a light massage of the tummy with clockwise circular movements of the palm of the hand. Ask your pediatrician how to properly put a syringe or enema: in what volume, boiled water or a special tool of a certain temperature.
With IV (artificial feeding)
The main problems in babies are caused by:
- improperly selected mixture, not suitable for age, containing elements that cause allergic reactions,
- violation of the rules of preparation: too liquid or thick consistency, frequent change of one food to another,
- attempts to feed the baby with breast milk.
The rate of defecation for infants
The number of bowel movements per day for children up to one year old depends on the type of food and age. There are no universal indicators of the norm by which one can judge the presence or absence of problems with bowel movements in absolutely any child.
In the first days of life, the newborn secretes the original feces, which is called meconium. It represents digested intestinal cells, amniotic fluid, mucus, bile, water. Mekonium has a dark green or black color, a viscous and sticky texture. The number of bowel movements per day in babies during this period varies from 1 to 3.
Subsequently, the stool of the baby changes depending on the selected type of feeding (breast, mixed or artificial) and persists until the introduction of complementary foods.
With exclusively breastfeeding, the stool in babies has the following features:
- liquid gruel-like consistency,
- yellow or yellow with a brown tint color,
- a slightly sour smell of digested milk,
- the number of bowel movements individually for each child (from 8 times a day to 1 time in 3-5 days).
Important: The frequency of bowel movement is highest in children in the first weeks after birth and can reach 5–8 times a day. As the baby grows up, the daily number of bowel movements decreases to 1-3 times.
With artificial or mixed type of feeding, the chair, as a rule, has a thicker texture, an unpleasant odor and a dark, closer to brown, color. In this case, bowel movement should occur at least once a day, otherwise it is believed that there is constipation in the baby.
Feces for constipation in an infant come in the form of separate solid lumps (type 1) or in the form of a dense sausage consisting of lumps (type 2)
During the introduction of complementary foods, the feces of the baby gradually change and begin to resemble the feces of an adult. They become decorated, acquire a brown color, dense texture and a characteristic smell.
Common causes of constipation
- sharp changes in the familiar environment, mother’s exit to work, her prolonged absence.
- Antibiotic therapy, with the appointment of this subgroup, dysbiosis develops, against which constipation appears.
- In difficult cases, children are recommended the subsequent use of probiotics - to restore the normal level of microflora in all parts of the intestine.
- Not enough drinking water in your daily diet.
- Inflammatory processes in the intestines, dysbiosis.
- Genetic predisposition.
- Violation of the functionality of the central nervous system, autonomic dysfunction. Damage to the anus - cracks, small wound surfaces.
- The artificial creation by parents of the "lazy" intestine syndrome is the constant use of enemas, laxatives.
- Muscle insufficiency of the abdominal wall, due to congenital rickets, prematurity.
- Helminthic lesions.
Congenital Constipation Factors
- Hirschsung syndrome - causes an organic type of constipation with a congenital malformation of the colon. The disease manifests itself from the first weeks of a child’s life and is treated in a medical facility.
- Narrowing the lumen of the rectum - can be multiple, along its entire length, up to the anus.
- Tumor-like formations, cysts on the intestinal mucosa.
- Ectopy of the anus - displacement of the anus, its location in an atypical place.
- Duplication of the rectum - characterized by a bifurcation of its walls or the presence of a bag-like protrusion, compressing the intestine and interfering with the normal discharge of feces.
How to treat pathology
The treatment of bowel movements must be fully entrusted to the local pediatrician. The use of any medication to alleviate the condition of the baby is strictly prohibited.
Enema, artificial rectal irritation, drugs (laxatives), rectal suppositories - all means are used exclusively after the appointment of a specialist. Self-medication will cause many problems with the digestive tract, leading to lifelong intestinal dysfunction.
Pediatricians recommend starting therapy:
- with a review of the mother’s nutrition - with HB,
- selection of the most suitable mixture for IV - this is done by the doctor,
- entering a sufficient amount of liquid - water, baby juices,
- compliance with the feeding regimen and its quantity - newborns are fed every four hours, in small portions,
- massage of problem areas, conducting special gymnastics for newborns - general recommendations will be given by a specialist observing the baby.
It is prescribed according to indications and taking into account the general condition of the baby:
With lactose deficiency - the child is transferred to mixtures with a reduced or negative amount of lactose in the composition, based on soy. The treatment is carried out with prebiotics - Dufalac, Lactusan, Prelax. In parallel, this series of medications cures dysbiosis.
With food allergies - Cow, goat milk is removed from the food. The diet of the nursing mother is corrected, if necessary, antihistamines - Suprastin, Fenistil are prescribed.
Laxatives - used as a one-time treatment option to facilitate the withdrawal of feces. Long-term use is not recommended - it is possible to create a syndrome of "lazy" intestines. Often assigned include - "Microlax", "Normolact" - is a microclyster.
Rectal candles - based on glycerol facilitate bowel movements, are used according to indications.
Prejudice and Typical Misconceptions
A piece of soap injected into the rectum will relieve constipation - any type of soap (household, baby, bath) contains alkali. When introduced into the anus and subsequent contact with the inner walls of the intestine will cause:
- artificial stretching of the intestinal walls - minor trauma to the mucous membranes,
- chemical reaction - the alkaline base will begin to suppress the microflora, cause irritation, local allergic reactions,
- itching in the anus,
- pain during subsequent bowel movements.
The tip of a thermometer, an enema, introduced to create an irritating effect - provokes the appearance of anal fissures, small bleeding wounds, the possible introduction of pathogenic microflora, inflammatory processes.
Decoctions of herbs with a laxative effect - every second adult using folk remedies suffers from allergic reactions to the constituent plants. The children's body is poorly adapted to combat external allergens.
Baby mixes and mashed juices provoke constipation - all nutrition options for babies are made according to the standards and are subject to sterilization. They are not able to harm the newborn. Self-made substitutes often cause problems with the digestive system, provoke the development of infectious processes, helminthic invasions.
There are many home methods actively used by parents to treat infants. After their use, hospitalization and a long period of therapy are required to restore the health of the baby. Blind faith in “miracle cures” will not cure the infant, but will cause irreparable damage to his health.
Therapeutic measures for the treatment of constipation at home are limited to massage, an increase in the amount of drinking water. All other methods and options should be approved and supervised by a pediatrician. A gentle childish body with a poorly formed gastrointestinal tract system is not able to quickly respond to external influences. Excessive effort can lead to many problems.
What symptoms indicate constipation in infants?
The lifestyle, nutrition and in general the body of children under one year of age, and even more so of a newborn, has significant differences compared with adults. In this regard, the assessment of any violations in their state of health, including the work of the digestive tract, is carried out taking into account age and physiological characteristics. For example, if after an act of defecation in an adult there remains a feeling of insufficient bowel movement, or there is a complete absence of stool for 3 days, then these signs clearly indicate the development of constipation. While in a baby who receives only breast milk as food, the absence of bowel movements for 3 or even 5 days may be a normal option.
This feature of the intestines in some children is due to the high degree of digestibility of breast milk and, as a result, the minimal formation of undigested residue, insufficient for the appearance of a urge to defecate. In this case, bowel movement in a child occurs after the accumulation of the required amount of feces.
The main signs of constipation in infants include the lack of a full-fledged stool for more than two or three days in a row, which is additionally accompanied by one or several of the following symptoms:
- the allocation of small portions of feces of a very solid consistency,
- anxiety, moodiness, frequent crying,
- loss of appetite,
- slow weight gain
- redness of the face and tightening of the legs when feeding,
- intense tension, screaming, and anxiety when trying to empty the intestines.
Important: If a baby breastfeeds rare bowel movements that are not accompanied by behavior changes, poor health or mood, then they are not symptoms of constipation in infants.
Causes of constipation in children under the age of one year
The occurrence of difficulties during bowel movements in infants is caused by a variety of reasons. Constipation in children can occur periodically or be present constantly. In most cases, periodic delays in bowel movements are due to some kind of nutritional problems leading to disruption of the intestines.Causes of chronic constipation in infants may be serious pathologies of the nervous system, congenital malformations of the large intestine, and other factors. Also, irregular stools in children under one year of age can be associated with physiological features of the structure of the digestive tract at this age.
Causes of constipation in children under one year of age associated with nutrition
The most common causes of constipation in infants are eating disorders. The delay in stools is temporary in this case, and after eliminating the problem, normal bowel function is restored by itself.
These reasons include:
- change in habitual nutrition (switching from breast milk to a mixture or replacing a milk mixture),
- unsuitable formula for children on artificial feeding,
- improper nutrition of a nursing mother, which contains many products that contribute to fastening the stool or cause increased gas formation (rice, white bread and buns, black tea, sodas, fatty meat, whole milk, cabbage, legumes, etc.),
- the introduction of complementary foods too early, when the digestive tract of the child is not yet ready to digest the new food offered to him,
- insufficient amount of fluid entering the baby’s body,
- high content in the baby’s diet during the period of complementary feeding, products that cause constipation in infants.
Important: Usually, as a result of the introduction of complementary foods, in most babies the stool normalizes and becomes regular. This is primarily due to the beginning of the intake of vegetables and fruits rich in plant fiber into the baby’s body.
Constipation in newborns during breastfeeding is rare enough, since mother’s breast milk is optimal in composition for normal work of the baby’s digestive tract
Diseases causing constipation in children under one year of age
Irregular stool or its prolonged absence in infants can be associated with a number of pathological conditions. Among them:
- congenital malformations of the intestine,
- a disorder in the activity of the nervous system caused by a severe course of pregnancy or the birth process,
- lactase deficiency
- diabetes mellitus, etc.
The frequency of congenital malformations of the intestine, resulting in constipation in newborns, is about 5%. In this case, chronic delays in bowel movements develop gradually and progress as the child grows.
To malformations of the intestine include:
- lengthening the sigmoid colon without changing the diameter and thickness of the walls (dolichosigma) or with the expansion of the lumen and thickening of the intestinal wall (megadichosigma),
- Hirschsprung’s disease - a violation of the innervation of individual fragments of the colon, as a result of which the affected area is constantly in a spasmodic state,
- narrowing or absence of the anus,
- colon doubling,
- diverticulum of the intestine.
Important: If a child has congenital malformations of the intestine or other serious diseases accompanied by a prolonged absence of bowel movements, constipation is far from the only symptom of such pathologies.
Other causes of constipation in infants
Disruption of the intestines in infants, manifested in a delay in bowel movements, can occur periodically under the influence of certain provoking factors. These include:
- taking medications (antibiotics, antispasmodics, iron preparations, etc.),
- high temperature (for example, with infectious diseases),
- teething period
- lack of motor activity,
- allergic reactions
- conscious delay in bowel movements due to psychological reasons.
Recommendation: In case of prolonged absence of stool in infants, the child should be shown to a pediatrician.Only he can determine the cause of such changes in the work of the intestine and establish whether this condition is a variant of the norm or pathology.
Delayed stool in infants causes a lot of panic in parents. Any manifestation of a problem with bowel movements suggests the presence of constipation in the baby. However, constipation does not always accurately characterize the problem with bowel movements, therefore it is urgent to find out the causes of this phenomenon.
Signs and causes: how to recognize them?
It is important for parents to pay attention to the general condition of the baby and the consistency of feces. If the delay is associated with constipation, then the child will be moody and whining. The kid can often push, but this does not lead to the desired result. During the attempt to go to the toilet, the baby is worried, his condition becomes nervous. During constipation, feces in a baby have a solid consistency. It looks like peas or has a cork, after which there is a lot of feces.
If there is a delay in bowel movement, but the baby is calm, does not refuse to feed, and the act of defecation does not cause discomfort, then this is clearly not about constipation. A newborn can often have this problem: the quality of assimilation of the mixture or breast milk is too good. In this case, the baby has nothing to go to the toilet. In the presence of the following manifestations, you need to find out the reasons. It is necessary to show the baby to the doctor.
Irregular stool in a newborn is often caused by malnutrition. When breastfeeding, the mother must also eat properly, as this affects the health of the baby. If the nursing mother has a large amount of protein food, coffee, black tea and flour products in the diet, the child may suffer from constipation.
With artificial feeding, the wrong choice of mixture leads to a problem with defecation. Low fluid intake by a child can also cause difficulty in defecation. Fluid intake is very important, you should not do only boiled water.
You need to adhere to simple rules that will avoid such a problem. Mothers need to exclude previously listed products from their menu. You must consume at least 100 g of lean meat per day. Fiber should be present in the diet, so you need to eat vegetables and fruits.
You can offer the baby a decoction of various dried fruits. Raisin drink is especially useful in this regard. If the problem is with the mixture, then you will need to replace it. This question is recommended to coordinate with the pediatrician. It is useful to massage the abdomen, but it must be done carefully.
Psychological causes and diseases
To normalize stool, it is not enough to eliminate the causes presented earlier. In some cases, problems with bowel movements may occur in infants due to psychological factors. Emptying the intestines can cause an unpleasant sensation in the child, so he will be afraid of such a process. In this case, you need to soften the stool. For this purpose, a special diet is used.
In addition, children of this age can manipulate the attention of adults. Noting that parents in such a period scurry around him, the child may deliberately delay stool. Therefore, adults need to be calm about such problems, and not panic.
If hungry stools may be associated with malnutrition, then some points require special attention, as they may indicate the development of the disease. Such ailments are relatively rare, but each parent needs to know them. Hirschsprung's disease is associated with impaired intestinal innervation. Some sections of the intestine stop working, they are in a state of spasm, which immediately affects the act of defecation of the baby.
Another pathology is represented by lengthening of the sigmoid colon - this is dolichosigma, which causes problems with using the toilet. In the presence of excesses and strong pressure from the sigmoid colon, the emptying slows down. As a result, an irregular stool occurs in a newborn.
Another problem is associated with lactose deficiency. It occurs due to a small amount of the enzyme or its complete absence. This enzyme is necessary for the breakdown of milk sugar - lactose. Such a violation manifests itself easily, since the absence of a stool can be replaced by diarrhea.
To eliminate the delay, you need to get rid of those reasons that can cause such a phenomenon. For this purpose, the mother’s diet is necessarily adjusted and the baby’s drinking regimen is respected. In some cases, it is necessary to humidify the air in the room. You should consult your doctor if you need to replace the mixture used or adjust the nature of complementary foods.
If there is no result during the implementation of these changes, you should diagnose the condition of the baby. This will eliminate the disease or detect them. Do not rush to use enemas and various laxatives.
As for the permitted drugs, it is forbidden for the newborn to use any laxatives other than Lactulose. Laxatives reduce the baby’s reflex, which is associated with the emptying process. The degree of assimilation of beneficial vitamins and substances decreases, the tone of the intestinal muscles decreases, which only worsens the situation. Therefore, it is required to help the child with harmless means before moving on to more serious medications.
In this case, you need to spread the baby more often on the stomach. It is useful to perform a tummy massage, followed by the previously mentioned coup. It is necessary to do clockwise movements, and press the legs to the stomach. They can perform an imitation of cycling.
The relaxing effect on the baby is warm, so you should put a warm diaper on the baby’s stomach. You can place the baby on the belly of the mother. The heat not only calms the baby, but also stimulates the work of peristalsis.
Is it constipation?
Not every episode of a baby's lack of stool can be considered constipation. It is believed that newborns of the first months of life can normally be emptied about as many times as there were feedings. It is also considered normal if the number of bowel movements is 1-2 times a day. In breastfed babies, mother's milk can be so well absorbed that they just have nothing to poop.
In one-year-old babies, the chair should be at least once a day.
In this case, you need to focus not so much on the number of empties as on the general condition of the child. If the newborn does not have stool during the day, but he feels well, eats and sleeps normally, puts on weight, then there is no reason for concern.
You should also pay attention to the appearance and smell of feces. Children who feed exclusively on mother’s milk have a yellow slurry stool with a characteristic milky smell. In children who are breast-fed, the stool is thicker, the color closer to brown, has a more pungent odor. If the baby has already begun to receive complementary foods, then this inevitably affects the quality of the chair. In this case, the color and consistency of feces become close to the adult.
Constipation is accompanied by a deterioration in the general condition of the baby and is manifested by the following symptoms:
- The chair is absent for a day or more.
- The child is anxious, often crying.
- The kid eats poorly, after eating begins to cry
- In the absence of stool in children, sleep is disturbed due to pain and bloating.
- When you feel the tummy, bloating is detected, the stomach is hard, the baby behaves uneasily when feeling the abdomen.
- To poop, the baby has to push hard, his face turns red, he bends his legs to his stomach, while he groans and cries.
- If the child was able to poke, then the feces looks like peas or pebbles, dark in color, an unpleasant odor. Sometimes you can see streaks of blood on the stool, due to damage by solid feces of the rectal mucosa.
- Complete bowel movement does not occur, the baby spoils in small portions and with great difficulty.
The condition can not be ignored, since untimely emptying of the intestinal tract harms the health of the newborn. With stagnation of feces, the absorption of harmful substances and toxins into the blood. This causes intoxication of the whole organism.
Often, children suffering from constipation are afraid to empty themselves and deliberately retain feces in the body. This is due to painful attempts to poop. Having experienced severe pain in the anus, the babies are afraid to empty themselves in the future, and the so-called "vicious circle" is formed. This condition is very dangerous, and babies need to overcome the psychological barrier. Sometimes without the help of a specialist can not do.
Why is there no chair?
Before we take active steps to fix the problem, let's figure out why the newborn does not have stool. To constipation can lead to a lot of reasons, which by origin are divided into several groups.
Improper nutrition of a nursing mother.
What a nursing mother eats inevitably affects the composition of milk. Constipation in a newborn can be caused by improper and unbalanced nutrition of the mother. This can occur with excessive consumption of meat, white bread, pastries, sweets, tea and coffee. A nursing mother should eat more vegetables and fruits, in a daily diet should be present vegetable soups or on a broth of lean meats. Mom should drink at least two liters of clean still water per day. Coffee and tea in the first months of a baby's life are best excluded altogether. Of sweets, give preference to dried fruits (dried apricots, prunes, raisins). Instead of whole milk, use fermented milk products.
Not enough fluid in the baby’s body.
Lack of stool in children can be caused by insufficient fluid intake. If the newborn is breast-fed and receives breasts on demand, this reason is excluded. With mother's milk, the baby receives a sufficient amount of fluid and nutrients. Before the introduction of complementary foods, it is not necessary to add water to infants.
With the "artificial" situation is slightly different. Every day, these babies need to be drunk with clean water at room temperature from a spoon or through a bottle. Boil water is not necessary! When boiling, water loses the minerals involved in the regulation of water balance in the body. It is best to buy special baby water at a pharmacy or store. Today it is available to absolutely everyone.
After the child began to receive complementary foods, it is necessary to gradually introduce drinks in his menu. Water should be given daily, and it is also useful to introduce juices and compotes. To normalize digestion and to prevent constipation, carrot and pumpkin juice are perfect. Compote cooked from raisins and dried apricots, without the addition of sugar, will perfectly cope with the problem.
Congenital diseases in children.
If constipation appeared in the first months of life, and it is not possible to establish the cause, the problem is likely to be in the body of the baby. This happens with some congenital bowel diseases.
Hirschsprung's disease is a disease of the large intestine, which is based on a violation of the innervation of individual sections of the intestine. As a result, in children, the natural movements of the intestine are disturbed, which contribute to the promotion of feces and their removal from the body.Frequent constipation and intoxication occur.
Dolichosigma is a bowel disease in which the sigmoid colon is longer than normal. The intestine forms numerous loops that overlap each other, making it difficult to move the feces. The newborn has constant constipation.
Diseases are dangerous for the health and life of the infant and require timely diagnosis and treatment in a medical institution. If you do not provide qualified children with timely assistance, complications can lead to death.
Incorrect introduction of complementary foods.
Often the cause of constipation can be untimely or incorrect introduction of complementary foods. Previously, it was recommended to start introducing juices and yolk from a month old. Now departed from this. Pediatricians do not recommend introducing complementary foods up to 6 months if the newborn receives breast milk and is gaining weight well.
You need to introduce complementary foods according to the rules. Start with one teaspoon and gradually increase. Only porridge should not be used as complementary foods. It should be vegetable and fruit purees, juices, baby cookies, cereals and cereal soups. From eight months you need to introduce meat products.
It so happens that you need to transfer the newborn to another mixture. If the mixture is not suitable for the child, then constipation can occur. The choice of mixture must be agreed with the doctor. It is better to opt for sour milk mixtures. The mixture must be prepared strictly in accordance with the instructions, without decreasing or increasing the amount of liquid.
Prepare a single dose of the mixture in an amount corresponding to the age of the child.
Constipation can be a child’s reaction to medications. Often this phenomenon is observed when taking antibiotics. In this case, it is necessary to take probiotics along with antibacterial drugs that normalize the microflora.
Stressful conditions of the baby.
Young children also have the ability to experience stress, which can lead to constipation. The most common reason is the fear of defecation, which was mentioned above.
What should parents do?
What to do if the baby cannot poop? First of all, to exclude intestinal diseases. If congenital diseases are not found during the study, then parents need to exclude external causes leading to frequent constipation.
- Mom needs to adjust her own diet by including plant fibers and the required amount of fluid in her daily diet. Exclude fatty foods, tea, coffee, alcohol.
- Daily do a newborn massage the abdomen and laying on the tummy to stimulate peristalsis. It is also useful from an early age to do gymnastics and not to limit motor activity of children. If the baby wants to crawl, then let him do it. No need to put him in the playpen or walker.
- Strictly follow the rules of complementary foods, drink a sufficient amount of liquid for both mother and baby.
- If the above recommendations are ineffective, you should consult a doctor for prescribing medicines (suppositories, laxatives).
Do not use “grandmother's” methods aimed at irritating the colon with foreign objects (bar of soap, cotton swabs, enemas, etc.). The use of these methods is dangerous for damage to the colon mucosa and threatens with serious complications.
Enema is the latest method of dealing with constipation. The procedure should be prescribed by a doctor, and it is better to entrust an enema to a nurse.
At birth, the baby’s organs and systems are in the process of formation, they continue to develop throughout the first year of life. Imperfection of the gastrointestinal tract makes it vulnerable to various disorders. What to do if the crumbs can not go big?
To find out if the baby really has problems with bowel movement, it is necessary to monitor the frequency of stool, the consistency and color of feces.
- Defecation should not cause discomfort to the child. Anxiety, intense straining and crying signal constipation, the treatment of which cannot be delayed,
- For babies, 4-10 bowel movements per day are considered the norm. Each month, this amount is reduced, in a one-year-old child, stool occurs once a day. But even if the baby does not have daily bowel movements, this may not indicate the presence of pathologies,
- The consistency of feces in infants in the first month of life is soft, porridge-like. With age, she gradually approaches the form of "sausage",
- The color of feces is influenced by the nutrition of the baby. Before the introduction of complementary foods, the chair has a yellow color, and after - brown.
So, the following symptoms indicate constipation: stool less than 1 time per day, while the baby is anxious, refuses to eat, cries, sleeps poorly.
Vomiting, bloating may be observed. In this case, the act of defecation is prevented by a high fecal density.
What to do with constipation in newborns
- First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the most obvious causes of digestive disorders: adjust the mother’s diet during breastfeeding or replace the milk mixture with artificial. It is important to follow a drinking regimen. The negative reaction of the body can also be caused by too early or incorrect introduction of complementary foods,
- If the situation does not change for the better, to exclude diseases, you need to be examined by a gastroenterologist, endocrinologist, neurologist. If pathologies are found, the doctor will give the necessary recommendations, which should be followed,
- More often put the baby on the tummy. You can apply a slightly warmed diaper to the stomach. The warmth of the mother’s body also has a positive effect,
- The problem of constipation in children 6-8 months old can be solved with fruit puree from plums, apricots, peaches, apples, as well as freshly squeezed juices diluted with water, a decoction of a mixture of dried fruits. Start with a teaspoon and, guided by the result, determine the optimal dose.
How to enema a newborn baby with constipation
Before you begin the procedure, prepare everything you need:
- small pear-shaped spray can with a soft tip. As a rule, in pharmacies the following types of devices are offered: No. 1 for newborn babies and No. 2 for babies,
- boiled water 24-25 degrees. Too cold a liquid can cause a spasm, and a warm liquid will not have the desired effect. You can add a spoonful of chamomile broth,
- baby cream or liquid paraffin, hemp oil for lubricating the anus and the tip of the balloon,
- oilcloth and a clean diaper,
- for convenience, you can use a diaper.
How to make a baby an enema? Here is a detailed instruction:
How to massage the tummy of a newborn with constipation
The massage procedure should be carried out several times a day, one-time manipulations will not give the desired effect.
- so as not to damage the baby’s delicate skin, cut your legs briefly, keep your hands clean,
- the room should have a comfortable temperature,
- apply a little oil or cream on your palms and rub to distribute it evenly,
- so that excess air comes out of the stomach, hold the baby "column",
- at least an hour should pass after feeding so as not to provoke vomiting,
- the surface on which the child lies should be moderately rigid, provide support for the back.
Massage when the baby is relaxed and in a good mood, in which case his abdominal wall remains relaxed and the effect will be most effective.
The right massage technique
Simple manipulations can strengthen the ability of smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract to contract, facilitate the removal of gases and feces. The duration of the session should not exceed ten minutes.
Follow these steps:
- put the baby in the back
- lightly stroke the tummy clockwise 10 times,
- put your wrist on the navel, use your other hand to move in a spiral, slightly pressing,
- massage the left and right side of the abdominal wall a little more intensely,
- in the lower abdomen, where the large intestine is located, work with the fingertips, repeating the outlines of the letter “P”,
- make soft vibrating movements and light shocks,
- turn the baby on the tummy and stroke along the back, starting from the shoulder blades and ending with the sacral region.
Having decided to fight constipation with massage, you need to consider in which cases it is forbidden to do so as not to damage your health.
You should refuse to massage if:
- the child is languid, his face is pale,
- there are rashes or lesions on the skin,
- blood is visible in the feces
- constipation is accompanied by hyperthermia,
- the stomach is very tense, swollen on one side,
- when you touch your stomach, the baby begins to cry.
With systematic stool delays, medications are prescribed. Therapy will be the same for both breastfeeding and artificial feeding.
- For children up to a year, funds with lactulose, for example Dufalac syrup, are suitable. The drug is not addictive, the maximum single dose is five milliliters,
- For children older than six months, you can give a mild laxative Forlax,
- You can also use glycerin suppositories that promote bowel movements,
- Laxatives with irritating effects and salt osmotic agents are contraindicated for children under the age of one year.
It is important to remember that the use of medicines for constipation should not become regular. It is necessary to identify the cause of intestinal dysfunction and eliminate it.
What Komarovsky recommends if the newborn has constipation
Dr. Komarovsky gives some tips to help alleviate the condition of the baby. If these measures do not help, you should contact a specialist.
What to do if an infant has constipation?
- do exercise "bike": take turns bending the legs of the child 10 times,
- put the baby in a warm bath,
- massage the baby’s tummy, cover with a warm diaper.
- The main method of prevention is the proper nutrition of a nursing mother and baby. If there is a predisposition to delay stool, mother should regularly use beets, prunes, apricots. But baking, flour and fatty foods will have to be limited,
- If constipation often recurs, use a special formula for feeding,
- The kid should move, spend enough time in the fresh air,
- The emptying procedure should take place in a calm environment, preferably at the same time.
Eliminating constipation requires an integrated approach. It is necessary to follow the recommendations of the doctor and give the child medications only under the supervision of a specialist. It is important to monitor the diet and a sufficient amount of fluid intake to prevent intestinal dysfunction.
And some more additional information about constipation in newborns - in the next video.
VIDEO: what to do with constipation
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